Eritrea real clear politics's Weblog

December 29, 2009

ማዕቐብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሃገረ ኤርትራ ንክግበር፡ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ብ23 ታሕሳስ 2009 ዓ.ም.ፈ ወሲኑ።

Filed under: Politics — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 4:12 pm

ማዕቐብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሃገረ ኤርትራ ንክግበር፡ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ብ23 ታሕሳስ 2009 ዓ.ም.ፈ ወሲኑ።

መእተዊ፡

ባይቶ ጸጥታ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት፡ ሎሚ 23 ታሕሳስ 2009 ዓ.ም.ፈ ኣብ ዘካየዶ ዋዕላ፡ ነቶም ንግዝያዊ መንግስቲ ሶማል ንምውዳቕ ዝንቀሳቐሱ ዘለዉ ዝተፈላለዩ ዑጡቃት ሶማል ብሓፈሻ ብፍላይ ድማ ብሃገራት ምዕራብጽንፋዊ እስላማዊ ስነሓሳብ ኣለዎምተባሂሉ ዝኽሰሱን ዝእመነሉ ኣልሸባብ ዝርከቦም ዕጡቓት ሶማላውያን ተቓውምቲ ጉጅለታትተዕጥቕን ትድግፍን ኣላብዝብል ተሪር ክሲ፡ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ፡ ናይ ኣጽዋር መሸጣ፡ ማዕቀብ ናይመገሻ ንላዕለዎት መራሕቲ ስርዓት ህግደፍን ሰራዊትን፡ ከምኡውን ምድስካል ቀዋምን ተንቀሳቀሲ ንብረቶም (Assets) ዘጠቓለለ ዝተናጻጸረ-ጽኑዕ ማዕቀብ ክግበረሎም (Resolution 1907 (2009) ወሲኑ ኣሎ። 

 እቲ ብኡጋንዳ ዝቐረበ ረቂቕ-ንድፊ ማዕቀብ፡ 13 ኣባላት ናይቲ 15 ሃገራት ዝሓቍፍ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ክድግፋኦ እንከለዋ፡ ሊብያ ተቓዊማቶ። እታ ድምጺ ብድምጺ ናይ ተዉቒፍን ምውዳቕ ስልጣን ዘለዋ ቻይና ግን ድምጺ ካብ ምሃብ ተቖጢባ ሓሊፋቶ ኣላ።  ሊብያ፡ ኣባል ናይቲ ሕቡራት መንግስታት ኣመሪካ፡ ዓባይ ብሪጣንያ፡ ፈረንሳ፡ ራሻ፡ ቻይና ዝርከብኦ ቀዋሚት ኣባል ባይቶ ጸጥታ ብዘይምዃና፡ ተቓውሞኣ ንኤርትራ ካብ ማዕቀብ ከድሕና እኳ እንተዘይክኣለ፡ ንታሪኽ ግን ፍሉይ መርገጺ ወሲዳ ኣላ።

እዚ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ ተወሲኑ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ፡  ኣብ ጂኦ-ፖሎቲካዊ ኩነት ዝተሞርኮሰ ኮይኑ፡ ኤርትራ፡ንተቓወምቲ ሶማል ብምዕጣቕን ምዕላምን ንዞባ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ምህዋኽ ደው ከተብልምስ ጅቡቲ ንዘለዋ ዶባዊ ምስሕሓብውን ብሰላማዊ መንገዲ ክትፈትሖ ዘገድድን ዝጽዉዕን እዩ። ነቲ ዝተገብረ ማዕቀብ ምኹኑይ ክገብርዎ እንከለዉ “ኤርትራ ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ትጻወቶ ዘላ ግደ ኣብ ክንዲ ሃናጺ ዝኸዉን፡ ንዕንወትን ዘይምርግጓእን ዝዕድም ብሓፈሻ፡ ብፍላይ ድማ  ስጉምትታት ኤርትራ ንመስርሕ ዕርቅን ሰላም ኣብ ሶማል ዘዕንቅፍ እዩ። ብፍላይ እቲ ኣብ መንጎ ኤርትራን ጅቡትን ዘሎ ምስሕሓብ ድማ ንሰላምን ኣህጉራዊ ጸጥታን ኣብ ስግኣት ዘውድቕ ብሞኻኑ እዩ ይብሉ። እዚ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉዱብ ሕቡራት ሃገራ ንስርዓት ኣስመራ ዝህቦ ዘሎ ሓገዛት፡ ብቀሊሉ ክቅጽሎ ዘየኽእሎ እኳ እንተኾነ፡ ፈጺሙ ክኽልኽሎ ግን ከምዘይክእል እዉን ክፍለጥ ዘለዎ ጉዳይ እዩ።  

ብፍላይ መንግስት ኣመሪካ፡ ብሓፈሻ ባይቶ ጸጥታ  ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት፡ ብተዳጋጋሚ እዋናት ተመሳሳሊ ስምዕታ ኣቕሪቡን ኣጠንቂቑን እንተኾነ፡ ስርዓት ኣስመራ ግን፡ ኣብ ዝተፈላለየ ኣጋጣሜታትን መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ን ሓንሳብ ምስ ሶማላውያን ተቓወምቲ ዘለዎ ርክብ ፖለቲካውን ሞራላውን ምምጽዳቕ ጥራይ ምዃኑ ይገልጽ፡ ሓንሳብ ሓንሳብ ድማ ትሕዝቶ ዓቕምን እንተዝህልወና ካብ ምሕጋዝ ሰኸኽ ከምዘይብሉ ይገልጽ። ሓንሳብ ሓንሳብ ድማ ንህዝቢ ሶማል ክንሕግዝ ሃገራዉን ሞራላዉን ግዴታታት ኣሎና ይብሉ፡ ስግር እዚ ድማ ፍጹም ንህቦ ሓገዛት የብልናን፡ የግዳስ ጉዳይ ሶማላዉያን ብሶማላዉያን ጥራይ እዩ ክፍታሕ ዝኽእል ዝብል ፖሎቲካዊ እምነት ኣሎና፡  ብምባል ነቲ ኣብ ልዕሊኡ ዝግበር ዝነበረ ክሲታት ክነጽጎ ከምዝጸንሐ  መላእ ዓለም ዝፈልጦ ጉዳይ እዩ። ተጋላባጥን ነንሕድሕዱ ዝዋቃዕ መግለጺ ስርዓት ኣስመራ ኣንካይ ዶ ንመንግስታት ሃገራት ዓለም ንህዝቡ እዉን ብመርገጺታቱ ከእምን ኣይክኣለን ዘሎ።

ስርዓት ኣስመራ ንቕንዕንኡን ፖሎቲካዊ መርገጺታቱን ብንጹር ክገልጽ ስለ ዘይበቕዔ፡ እቲ ናይ ማዕቀብ ዉሳኔ ብዘይ ገለ ዕቱብ ተቃዉሞ ናይ ዕትብቲ ሃገር ክሓልፍን ክዉሰንን ኪኢሉ ኣሎ። ሕጂ ስርዓተ ኣስመራ ጠጠቕትን ኣብሰልትን እዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ኣመሪካ፡ ኢትዮጵያ፡ ኡጋንዳ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ምኻኖም ይዛረብን ኣጻብዕቱ ናብኦም የመልክት ኣሎ።

ናይ ብሓቂ ጥዕና ዝጎዶሎ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት እዩ። እቲ ምንታይስ ምስ እዘን ዝጠቕሰን ዘሎ ሃገራት ምስ ገሊኤን ኣብ ቀጥታዊ ወትሃደራዊ ረጽሚ ኣትዩ እዩ። ምስ ገሊኤን ኣብ ፖሎቲካዊ ቆዮቃን ዲፕሎማስያዊ ሓርጎጽጎጻት ብምእታዉ፡ ብመራኸቢ ቡዙሓናቱን ዓለምለኻዊ መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ተጠቂሙ ን7 ዓመታት መመላእታ ክጻረፍ፡ ከስተናዕቕ፡ ክኸስስ፡ ክፍክር…ወ.ዘ.ተ ጸኒሑ እዩ። እንታይ እዩ ዝጽበ ነይሩ? ዓስቢ እንትናታቱ ናይ ኖቬል ስልማት ክስልምዎ! ኣንኳይ ዶ ማዕቀብ: ባይታን ኮዉንነትን እንተረኺቦም እዉን ነዚ ስርዓት’ዚ ሓንሳብ ንሓዋሩ ጸሪጎም ክጉሕፍዎ ከምዝደልዩ ኣቀዲሙ ክፈልጦ ዝነበሮ ጉዳይ እዩ።

እቲ ዘሕዝን ግን ብስንክ እዚ ደሪቀ-ሞትን ቡሉይን ፈጓዕጓ ዝበለ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት’ዚ፡ ኤርትራ ኣብ ቀይሕ ናይ ሓደጋ ምልክት መብራህቲ ዓለምና ምንጥልጣላን፡ ኣብ ቋራና መገዲ ምዉዳቓ እዩ። ብሰንክ እዚ ቡሉይ ምንህኒ ዝበለ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ኤርትራ ከም ሃገርን ህዝብን ከይቕጽል ንሓደጋ ክትሳጣሕ’ዉን ትኽእል እያ።

ሕጂ ኤርትራዉያን ናይ ብሓቂ ፈተዉቲ ሃገርናን ህዝብናን እንተኼና፡ ምስ ማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ምምራር ዘይኮነ፡ ቀዳምነት ምስ ስርዓትና ምምራር ከድሊየና እዩ። እቲ ምንታይስ እዚ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ንሕና ኤርትራዉያን ስለዝደለናዮ ወይስ ስለዝተቃወምናዮ ዝተገብረን ዝተርፍን ኣይኮነን። ደጊፍና ተቃዊምና እዉን ንቕይሮ ነገር ኣይኮነን። ነዚ ክዉንነት መሰረታዊ ምቕይያር ክንፈጥሮሉ ዝድለ እንተኾይኑ፡ ነዚ መንሽሮ ሃገር፡ ህዝቢ፡ ከባቢን ዓለምን ዝኾነ ስርዓት ክንቕይሮ ሓድነትና ኣትሪርና ምቕላስ እዩ።

ነቲ ዝተደወነ ምስሊ ኤርትራ ዳግም ንቦትኡ ክንመልሶ እንተዘይበቂዕና፡ እዚ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ጥራይ መኽፈቲ ኣፈፌት እዩ። እዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ብመሰረት ዓንቀጽ 7 ቻርተር ዉድብ ሕቡራይ ሃገራት ዝተወሰነ እዩ። እዚ ዓንቀጽ እዚ ኣዝዩ ቡዙሑን ዓሚቑን እዩ። እዚ ዓንቀጽ እዚ ልዕሊ እቲ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ካልእ ስጉምትታት እዉን ክዉሰድ ስለዘፍቕድ ጀሚሩ እምበር ተወዲኡ ክባሃል ዝክኣል ኣይኮነን። ስለዚ ስርዓት ኣስመራ ኣብ ዉሽጥ 180 መዓልታት ጠለብ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ብኣዉንታ ክምልስን ሃናጺ ተራ ክጻወት ኣለዎ።

ምዕራባዉያን ማዕቅብ ክገብሩልካ እንከለዉ፡ ከምዚ ተገሊሉ ዘይነጽፍ ዒላ ነቲ ዘንበሩልካ ማዕቀብ ተጠቂሞም፡ ረብሓታቶም ከራጋግጹ ንዘላኣለም ክግሉሉኻ እዮም ዝነብሩ። ሕድገታት ምስትገብር’ዉን ጠለባቶም እንዳኣብዙሑ ብምኻድ፡ ብዝተፈላለየ ዓቀናትን ዓይነታትን ድማ ነቲ ሃገርን ህዝብ ንምድኻም ክቕጽሉ ስለዝኾነ፡ ንከይቕጽል ዓቢ ዶንጎላ ዉሻል መግትኢ ክንገብረሎም ኣሎና። እቲ ዉሻል ድማ ነቲ ስርዓት ካብዛ ሕጂ በጺሕዋ ዘሎ ካይቕጽል ምግባርን እንተተኻኢሉ ድማ ብሓድሽ ዘመናዉን ሙዑብልን ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ምቕያሩ ጥራይ እዩ። እዚ ናይ ምርጫ ሕቶ ኣይኮነን። ናይ ግድን ክትግበር ዘለዎ ሕቶ እዩ።  ንኤርትራን ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ናብዚ ኣዝዩ ተኣፋፊ ኩነታት ዘዉደቐ፡-

1.ዘይብቑዑን ዘይፖሎቲካዊ ኣጋባብ ኣካይዳ መርሒነት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍን ነፋግ፡ ገባቲ፡ ቁጡዕ፡ ደሪቀ-ሞት፡ ጻሕታሪ-ግርጭታት፡ ኣንነታዊን ዘይሓላፍነታዊ ባህርያቶም።

2.ብሓፈሻ ናይ ኣመሪካ ናይ ወጻኢ ፖሊሲታትን ናይ ጸጥታ ስትራተጂ ኣብ ዓለምን ብፍላይ ኣብ ቀርኒ-ኣፍሪቃ።

3.ናይ ስርዓት ወያኔ ተጻብኦታትን እዩ። ኣመሪካን ወያኔን ረብሓታቶም ንምርግጋጽ ክነጥፉ ናይ ግድን እዩ። ረብሓታቶም ብሽርክነታዉን ምሕዝነታዊ መገድታት ከራጋግጹ ካብዘይክኣሉ ካልእ ብልሓታት ክጥቀሙ ግድነታዊ እዩ። ንጠንቕ ንምኻን ዝተቃልዔ ባህርያትን ጥማሓትን ዘለዎ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ስለዝረኸቡ፡ ደፋፊኦምን ኣናሃሂሮም ጠንቂ ከምዝኸዉን ገይሮሞ። ጠንቂ እንተዘይረኽቡ፡ ኣብ ከምዚ ዓይነት ህልኽ እዉን ኣይምስኣተዉን ነይሮም ክባሃል ይክኣል።

ዝኾነ ኪናት፡ ዝኾነ ማዕቀብ፡ ዝኾነ ስምዕታታት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ብዘይ ፖሎቲካዊ ዕላማ ኣይካየድን እዩ። እዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ድማ ፈቲና ጸሊኢና ብድሕሪኡ ፖሎቲካዊ ዕላማ ዘለዎ ምኻኑ ክንፈልጥ ይግብኣና። ኩሎም ቅልሳት ዓለምና ናይ ረብሓ ሕቶታት እዮም። ስለዚ ሃገራት ይኹን ኣህዛብ ዘካይድዎ ቃልስታት ናይ ረብሓ ሕቶ ስለዝኾነ ኣብ ዝቕጽል ጽሑፍ ብእብረን ቕርጡዉ ዝበለ ብልሓት ክገልጾ ክፍትን እየ።

 

ንታሪኽ ሰነድ ዉሳኔ ማዕቀብ፡

 

 

23 December 2009

  Security Council

SC/9833


 

 

Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York

Security Council

6254th Meeting (AM)

 

Security Council Imposes Sanctions on Eritrea over Its Role in Somalia,

 

Refusal to Withdraw Troops Following Conflict with Djibouti

 

 

Resolution 1907 (2009) Stipulates Arms Embargo, Travel Restrictions, Asset Freezes

 

Gravely concerned about findings that Eritrea had provided support to armed groups undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia and that it had not withdrawn its forces following clashes with Djibouti in June 2008, the Security Council today imposed an arms embargo on that country, in addition to travel restrictions on and a freeze on the assets of its political and military leaders.

 

Adopting resolution 1907 (2009) by a vote of 13 in favour to 1 against (Libya), with 1 abstention (China) under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council reiterated its demand that Eritrea withdraw its forces to the positions of the status quo ante in the area where its conflict with Djibouti had occurred, acknowledge its border dispute and cooperate fully with the Secretary-General’s good offices.  It further demanded that the country cease all efforts to destabilize or overthrow, directly or indirectly, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia.

 

The Council demanded that all States, in particular Eritrea, cease arming, training and equipping armed groups and their members, including Al-Shabaab, which aimed to destabilize the region or incite violence and civil strife in Djibouti.  It further demanded that Eritrea cease facilitating travel and other forms of financial support to individuals or entities designated by the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) regarding Somalia and other sanctions committees, in particular the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) regarding Al‑Qaida and the Taliban.

 

Imposing an embargo on arms and associated materiel to and from Eritrea, the Council called upon all States to inspect all cargo to and from Somalia and Eritrea, and upon discovery of prohibited items, to seize and dispose of them.  It decided that travel restrictions and an asset freeze should apply to individuals, including but not limited to, the Eritrean political and military leadership, so designated by the Committee on Somalia Sanctions, as well as to governmental and parastatal actors and entities privately owned by Eritrean nationals living within or outside Eritrean territory, so designated by the same Committee.  Also by the text, the Council expanded the Committee’s mandate to undertake those additional tasks, as well as that of the Monitoring Group assisting the Committee.

 

Libya’s representative, in explaining his negative vote, said more time and concerted cooperation were needed to persuade all countries in the Horn of Africa to establish mechanisms to deal with their problems.  Libya had advocated the use of international legal bodies to resolve border disputes, which were the main cause of disagreement in the region.  Describing the resolution as unrealistic and too hasty, he said sanctions were not the ideal way to solve the current problem and their humanitarian effects would exacerbate current tensions.  Libya would have preferred that the Council wait until the African Union Summit in January, which would consider the problems of the Horn of Africa.

 

China’s representative said he had abstained from the vote because the Council should always act prudently in imposing sanctions.  The priorities in the region were dialogue between countries and restraint from violence.  China supported international efforts to encourage reconciliation in Somalia, but the resolution of that country’s problems required the cooperation of all countries in the region.  In addition, the African Union was better suited to address conflicts in the Horn of Africa through diplomatic methods.

 

Djibouti’s representative said that, by adopting the resolution, the Council had further highlighted its growing cooperation with the African Union in maintaining peace and security on the continent.  Noting that the July 2009 African Union Summit in Sirte, Libya, had called upon the Council to impose sanctions on foreign actors, particularly Eritrea, supporting the efforts of armed groups to destabilize Somalia, he said Eritrea had also refused to implement resolution 1862 (2009) regarding its border dispute with Djibouti.  The Government of Djibouti today warmly welcomed justice at last against the “unprovoked, naked and blatant aggression against my country by Eritrea almost two years ago”.  Hopes were high in the Horn of Africa that today’s action would be the beginning of the end to prolonged, destructive, senseless and wasteful wars and hostilities.

 

Somalia’s representative said Eritrea had been a major negative factor in prolonging the conflict in his country.  Eritrea had been giving refuge and safe haven to known terrorists, rebels, spoilers and violators of human rights, whose purpose all along was to destabilize Somalia.  It had been providing, financing and facilitating the flow of arms and other resources to the extremists and terrorist elements in Somalia, as well as economic, political, moral and propaganda support to the armed insurgents and spoilers.  However, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia stood ready to enter into serious dialogue with Eritrea in order to solve any outstanding matters.

 

Other speakers welcomed the Council’s adoption of the resolution following the request of the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority for Development.  Noting that the measures imposed by the resolution were not comprehensive but targeted and corrective, and that designation of individuals and entities to be subjected to its measures was in the hands of the Somali Sanctions Committee, they expressed hope that future actions by Eritrea would allow the Council to review the measures in a positive way.

 

Also speaking were the representatives of Uganda, Viet Nam, Austria, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, Turkey and Burkina Faso.

 

The meeting began at 10:40 a.m. and ended at 11:25 a.m.

 

Background

 

The Security Council met this morning to consider a draft resolution submitted by Uganda regarding the situation between Djibouti and Eritrea, as well as the Djibouti Agreement and Peace Process for a resolution of the conflict in Somalia.  Also before it was a letter dated 15 December from the Permanent Representative of Eritrea to the Council President (document S/2009/658), in which he urges Council members to use their influence to ensure the rejection of the draft in its entirety.

 

Action on Draft Resolution

 

The Council adopted the draft resolution with 13 members voting in favour to 1 against ( Libya), with 1 abstention ( China).

 

The full text of resolution 1907 (2009) reads as follows:

 

The Security Council,

 

Recalling its previous resolutions and statements of its President concerning the situation in Somalia and the border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea, in particular its resolutions 751 (1992), 1844 (2008), and 1862 (2009), and its statements of 18 May 2009 (S/PRST/2009/15), 9 July 2009 (S/PRST/2009/19), 12 June 2008 (S/PRST/2008/20),

 

Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence and unity of Somalia, Djibouti and Eritrea, respectively,

 

Expressing the importance of resolving the border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea,

 

Reaffirming that the Djibouti Agreement and Peace Process represent the basis for a resolution of the conflict in Somalia, and further reaffirming its support for the Transitional Federal Government (TFG),

 

Noting the decision of the 13th Assembly of the African Union (AU) in Sirte, Libya, calling on the Council to impose sanctions against foreign actors, both within and outside the region, especially Eritrea, providing support to the armed groups engaged in destabilization activities in Somalia and undermining the peace and reconciliation efforts as well as regional stability (S/2009/388),

 

Further noting the decision of the 13th Assembly of the AU in Sirte, Libya expressing its grave concern at the total absence of progress regarding the implementation by Eritrea of, inter alia, resolution 1862 (2009) regarding the border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea (S/2009/388),

 

Expressing its grave concern at the findings of the Monitoring Group re‑established by resolution 1853 (2008) as outlined in its December 2008 report (S/2008/769) that Eritrea has provided political, financial and logistical support to armed groups engaged in undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia and regional stability,

 

Condemning all armed attacks on TFG officials and institutions, the civilian population, humanitarian workers and the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) personnel,

 

Expressing its grave concern at Eritrea’s rejection of the Djibouti Agreement, as noted in the letter of 19 May 2009, from the Permanent Representative of Eritrea to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council (S/2009/256),

 

Recalling its resolution 1844 (2008) in which it decided to impose measures against individuals or entities designated as engaging in or providing support to acts that threaten peace, security and stability in Somalia, acting in violation of the arms embargo or obstructing the flow of humanitarian assistance to Somalia,

 

Expressing its appreciation of the contribution of AMISOM to the stability of Somalia, and further expressing its appreciation for the continued commitment to AMISOM by the Governments of Burundi and Uganda,

 

Reiterating its intention to take measures against those who seek to prevent or block the Djibouti Peace Process,

 

Expressing its deep concern that Eritrea has not withdrawn its forces to the status quo ante, as called for by the Security Council in its resolution 1862 (2009) and the statement of its President dated 12 June 2008 (S/PRST/2008/20),

 

Reiterating its serious concern at the refusal of Eritrea so far to engage in dialogue with Djibouti, or to accept bilateral contacts, mediation or facilitation efforts by sub-regional or regional organizations or to respond positively to the efforts of the Secretary-General,

 

Taking note of the letter of the Secretary-General issued on 30 March 2009 (S/2009/163), and the subsequent briefings by the Secretariat on the Djibouti-Eritrea conflict,

 

Noting that Djibouti has withdrawn its forces to the status quo ante and cooperated fully with all concerned, including the United Nations fact-finding mission and the good offices of the Secretary-General,

 

Determining that Eritrea’s actions undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia as well as the dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea constitute a threat to international peace and security,

 

Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

 

“1.   Reiterates that all Member States, including Eritrea, shall comply fully with the terms of the arms embargo imposed by paragraph 5 of resolution 733 (1992), as elaborated and amended by resolutions 1356 (2001), 1425 (2002), 1725 (2006), 1744 (2007) and 1772 (2007) on Somalia and the provisions of resolution 1844 (2008);

 

“2.   Calls upon all Member States, including Eritrea, to support the Djibouti Peace Process and support reconciliation efforts by the TFG in Somalia, and demands that Eritrea cease all efforts to destabilize or overthrow, directly or indirectly, the TFG;

 

“3.   Reiterates its demand that Eritrea immediately comply with resolution 1862 (2009) and:

(i)   Withdraw its forces and all their equipment to the positions of the status quo ante, and ensure that no military presence or activity is being pursued in the area where the conflict occurred in Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island in June 2008;

(ii)  Acknowledge its border dispute with Djibouti in Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island, engage actively in dialogue to defuse the tension and engage also in diplomatic efforts leading to a mutually acceptable settlement of the border issue; and,

(iii)Abide by its international obligations as a Member of the United Nations, respect the principles mentioned in Article 2, paragraphs 3, 4, and 5, and Article 33 of the Charter, and cooperate fully with the Secretary-General, in particular through his proposal of good offices mentioned in paragraph 3 of resolution 1862 (2009);

 

“4.   Demands that Eritrea make available information pertaining to Djiboutian combatants missing in action since the clashes of 10 to 12 June, 2008 so that those concerned may ascertain the presence and condition of Djiboutian prisoners of war;

 

“5.   Decides that all Member States shall immediately take the necessary measures to prevent the sale or supply to Eritrea by their nationals or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of arms and related materiel of all types, including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned, and technical assistance, training, financial and other assistance, related to the military activities or to the provision, manufacture, maintenance or use of these items, whether or not originating in their territories;

 

“6.   Decides that Eritrea shall not supply, sell or transfer directly or indirectly from its territory or by its nationals or using its flag vessels or aircraft any arms or related materiel, and that all Member States shall prohibit the procurement of the items, training and assistance described in paragraph 5 above from Eritrea by their nationals, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, whether or not originating in the territory of Eritrea;

 

“7.   Calls upon all Member States to inspect, in their territory, including seaports and airports, in accordance with their national authorities and legislation, and consistent with international law, all cargo to and from Somalia and Eritrea, if the State concerned has information that provides reasonable grounds to believe the cargo contains items the supply, transfer, or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 of this resolution or the general and complete arms embargo to Somalia established pursuant to paragraph 5 of resolution 733 (1992) and elaborated and amended by subsequent resolutions for the purpose of ensuring strict implementation of those provisions;

 

“8.   Decides to authorize all Member States to, and that all Member States shall, upon discovery of items prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 above, seize and dispose (either by destroying or rendering inoperable) items the supply, sale, transfer, or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 of this resolution and decides further that all Member States shall cooperate in such efforts;

 

“9.   Requires any Member State when it finds items the supply, sale, transfer, or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 of this resolution to submit promptly a report to the Committee containing relevant details, including the steps taken to seize and dispose of the items;

 

“10.  Decides that all Member States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the entry into or transit through their territories of individuals, designated by the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) and expanded by resolution 1844 (2008) (herein “the Committee”) pursuant to the criteria in paragraph 15 below, provided that nothing in this paragraph shall oblige a state to refuse entry into its territory to its own nationals;

 

“11.  Decides that the measures imposed by paragraph 10 above shall not apply:

 

(a)   where the Committee determines on a case-by-case basis that such travel is justified on the grounds of humanitarian need, including religious obligation; or,

 

(b)   where the Committee determines on a case-by-case basis that an exemption would otherwise further the objectives of peace and stability in the region;

 

“12.  Decides that all Member States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale or transfer by their nationals or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft of arms and related materiel of all types, including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned and the direct or indirect supply of technical assistance or training, financial and other assistance including investment, brokering or other financial services, related to military activities or to the supply, sale, transfer, manufacture, maintenance or use of weapons and military equipment, to the individuals or entities designated by the Committee pursuant to paragraph 15 below;

 

“13.  Decides that all Member States shall freeze without delay the funds, other financial assets and economic resources which are on their territories on the date of adoption of this resolution or at any time thereafter, that are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the entities and individuals designated by the Committee pursuant to paragraph 15 below, or by individuals or entities acting on their behalf or their direction, and decides further that all Member States shall ensure that no funds, financial assets or economic resources are made available by their nationals or by any individuals or entities within their territories to or for the benefit of such individuals or entities;

 

“14.  Decides that the measures imposed by paragraph 13 above do not apply to funds, other financial assets or economic resources that have been determined by relevant Member States:

 

(a)   to be necessary for basic expenses, including payment for foodstuffs, rent or mortgage, medicines and medical treatment, taxes, insurance premiums, and public utility charges or exclusively for payment of reasonable professional fees and reimbursement of incurred expenses associated with the provision of legal services, or fees or service charges, in accordance with national laws, for routine holding or maintenance of frozen funds, other financial assets and economic resources, after notification by the relevant Member State to the Committee of the intention to authorize, where appropriate, access to such funds, other financial assets or economic resources, and in the absence of a negative decision by the Committee within three working days of such notification;

 

(b)   to be necessary for extraordinary expenses, provided that such determination has been notified by the relevant Member State(s) to the Committee and has been approved by the Committee; or

 

(c)   to be the subject of a judicial, administrative or arbitral lien or judgment, in which case the funds, other financial assets and economic resources may be used to satisfy that lien or judgment provided that the lien or judgment was entered into prior to the date of the present resolution, is not for the benefit of a person or entity designated pursuant to paragraph 13 above, and has been notified by the relevant Member State(s) to the Committee;

 

“15.  Decides that the provisions of paragraph 10 above shall apply to individuals, including but not limited to the Eritrean political and military leadership, and that the provisions of paragraphs 12 and 13 above shall apply to individuals and entities, including but not limited to Eritrean political and military leadership, governmental, and parastatal entities, and entities privately owned by Eritrean nationals living within or outside of Eritrean territory, designated by the Committee:

 

(a)   as violating the measures established by paragraphs 5 and 6 above;

 

(b)   as providing support from Eritrea to armed opposition groups which aim to destabilize the region;

 

(c)   as obstructing implementation of resolution 1862 (2009) concerning Djibouti;

 

(d)   as harbouring, financing, facilitating, supporting, organizing, training, or inciting individuals or groups to perpetrate acts of violence or terrorist acts against other States or their citizens in the region;

 

(e)   as obstructing the investigations or work of the Monitoring Group;

 

“16.  Demands that all Member States, in particular Eritrea, cease arming, training, and equipping armed groups and their members including Al-Shabaab, that aim to destabilize the region or incite violence and civil strife in Djibouti;

 

“17.  Demands Eritrea cease facilitating travel and other forms of financial support to individuals or entities designated by the Committee and other Sanctions Committees, in particular the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999), in line with the provisions set out in the relevant resolutions;

 

“18.  Decides to further expand the mandate of the Committee to undertake the additional tasks:

 

(a)   To monitor, with the support of the Monitoring Group, the implementation of the measures imposed in paragraphs 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 above;

 

(b)   To designate those individuals or entities subject to the measures imposed by paragraphs 10, 12 and 13 above, pursuant to criteria set forth in paragraph 15 above;

 

(c)   To consider and decide upon requests for exemptions set out in paragraphs 11 and 14 above;

 

(d)   To update its guidelines to reflect its additional tasks;

 

“19.  Decides to further expand the mandate of the Monitoring Group re‑established by resolution 1853 (2008) to monitor and report on implementation of the measures imposed in this resolution and undertake the tasks outlined below, and requests the Secretary-General to make appropriate arrangements for additional resources and personnel so that the expanded Monitoring Group may continue to carry out its mandate, and in addition:

 

(a)   Assist the Committee in monitoring the implementation of the measures imposed in paragraphs 5, 6, 8,10, 12 and 13 above, including by reporting any information on violations;

 

(b)   Consider any information relevant to implementation of paragraphs 16 and 17 above that should be brought to the attention of the Committee;

 

(c)   Include in its reports to the Security Council any information relevant to the Committee’s designation of the individuals and entities described in paragraph 15 above;

 

(d)   Coordinate as appropriate with other Sanctions Committees’ panels of experts in pursuit of these tasks;

 

“20.  Calls upon all Members States to report to the Security Council within 120 days of the adoption of this resolution on steps they have taken to implement the measures outlined in the paragraphs 5, 6, 10, 12 and 13 above;

 

“21.  Affirms that it shall keep Eritrea’s actions under review and that it shall be prepared to adjust the measures, including through their strengthening, modification, or lifting, in light of Eritrea’s compliance with the provisions of this resolution;

 

“22.  Requests the Secretary-General to report within 180 days on Eritrea’s compliance with the provisions of this resolution;

 

“23.  Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”

 

Statements

 

RUHAKANA RUGUNDA ( Uganda) recalled that, at its 2009 Summit in Sirte, Libya, the African Union had called on the Council to impose sanctions against foreign actors both within and outside the region, especially Eritrea, who provided support to armed groups in Somalia, thus undermining peace and reconciliation efforts as well as regional stability.

 

He said the resolution just adopted was a clear manifestation of the cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union in efforts to resolve conflicts on the continent.  The measures imposed by the text were not comprehensive, but targeted and corrective, and it was to be hoped that Eritrea would take sufficient actions to enable the Council to positively review the measures imposed today.

 

LE LUONG MINH (Viet Nam), noting that he had voted in favour of the text, called on the parties concerned to show maximum restraint in implementing relevant Council resolutions, and to engage in dialogue to resolve the border dispute between them.  International conflicts, including border disputes, should be resolved by peaceful means and in compliance with international law and the provisions of the United Nations Charter.  He urged the Council to keep the situation under constant review.

 

ABDURRAHMAN MOHAMED SHALGHAM ( Libya) said more time and concerted cooperation was needed to persuade all countries in the Horn of Africa to establish mechanisms for dealing with their problems.  Libya advocated the use of international legal bodies to resolve border disputes, which were the main cause of disagreement in the region.  It supported Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government and the proposed creation of a Government of National Unity there, under the Djibouti Agreement.  Libya called on all parties to sign up to and implement that accord.

 

Describing the resolution just adopted as unrealistic and too hasty, he said his own country had been subject to sanctions and knew well their counter-productive effects.  Sanctions were not the ideal way to solve the current problem, and their humanitarian effects would exacerbate current tensions.  The African Union would hold its next Summit in January, when it would consider the problems in the Horn of Africa.  Libya would have preferred that the Council wait until the results of that meeting were known, he said.

 

ZHANG YESUI ( China) said he had abstained from the vote because the Council should always act prudently in imposing sanctions.  The priorities in the region were dialogue between countries and restraint from violence.  China hoped that countries in the region would make stronger efforts to create a harmonious environment so that reconciliation could take place in Somalia and the wider region.

 

Expressing support for international efforts to encourage reconciliation in Somalia, he said, however, that resolution of the country’s problems required the cooperation of all countries in the region.  China called on them to engage with each other in that spirit.  In addition, the African Union was better suited to address conflicts in the Horn of Africa through diplomatic methods.

 

CHRISTIAN EBNER ( Austria) said he had voted in favour of the text as his country condemned all acts undermining the peace process in Somalia.  It was significant that the targeted sanctions were based on a two-step approach.  Designation for targeted sanctions would be determined by the Somalia sanctions Committee, but beyond the imposition of sanctions, it would be important to seek solutions to the underlying problems.

 

YUKIO TAKASU ( Japan) said he had voted in favour of the resolution as his country respected African initiatives to address the conflicts in the Horn of Africa.  The disputes should be resolved through diplomatic means, including mediation.  There was a need to accelerate efforts to resolve conflicts in the Horn of Africa, and it was to be hoped that all States in the region, including Eritrea, would comply with the resolution.  The Council would keep the measures under constant review in light of future developments.

 

MARK LYALL GRANT ( United Kingdom) said the resolution had created a new sanctions regime in response to continued violations of Council resolutions in the Horn of Africa.  It followed requests by two regional organizations, the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).  The Monitoring Group on sanctions regarding Somalia had presented evidence that Eritrea was providing support to armed groups undermining the country’s peace process.  Moreover, Eritrea had failed to comply with resolution 1862 (2009) regarding its border dispute with Djibouti.  The United Kingdom urged the Government of Eritrea to stop its illegal actions and engage with international partners to increase stability in the region.  Future Council actions would depend on its response.

 

CLAUDE HELLER ( Mexico) said the sanctions regime would improve chances for reconciliation in Somalia, and his country, which chaired the Sanctions Committee, would continue working to ensure that the measures provided incentives for the various regional actors to join a process leading towards stability in the region.

 

ERTUĞRUL APAKAN ( Turkey) said that, in principle, disputes should be solved through diplomacy and dialogue, and it was therefore to be he hoped that the resolution would be used by all parties to encourage dialogue and to resolve all outstanding issues in the Horn of Africa.

 

Council President MICHEL KAFANDO (Burkina Faso), speaking in his national capacity, said that while his country considered sanctions as a mechanism of last resort, he was deeply concerned by the serious deterioration of the security situation resulting from attacks by the Al-Shabaab movement, which was supported by foreign entities.

 

He said he remained convinced of the African Union’s importance in resolving the continent’s conflicts, noting that the resolution included review mechanisms.  He urged Eritrea to work with others in the region to foster a diplomatic solution to the problems in Somalia and the wider Horn of Africa.

 

ROBLE OLHAYE ( Djibouti) said that by adopting the resolution, the Council had further highlighted its growing cooperation with the African Union in maintaining peace and security on the continent.  The Sirte Summit had called on the Council to impose sanctions on foreign actors, particularly Eritrea, that supported the efforts of armed groups to destabilize Somalia and minimize reconciliation efforts.

 

Noting that Eritrea had refused to implement resolution 1862 (2009) on its border dispute with Djibouti, he said there had been a convergence of views between the Council and the African Union on the lack of cooperation and dialogue on the part of Eritrea, which had shown nothing but disdain while refusing to cooperate, in spite of the offers of good offices made by the two organizations.

 

The part of Djibouti’s territory now occupied by Eritrea had been the subject of a previous contention in 1996, he recalled.  A decade later, in 2008, there had been a military confrontation between the two countries, followed by the occupation of Ras Doumeira and Domeira Island by Eritrean forces.  The conclusions of a Security Council fact-finding mission had been clear, unmistakable and far-reaching.  They were a damning indictment of the Eritrean regime’s erratic behaviour and its dishonest and deliberate distortions of facts.

 

Recalling Eritrea’s rejection of resolution 1862 (2009), which demanded that it implement specific actions within six weeks, he said it was inconceivable that a year had passed without any implementation of the resolution.  Today, justice had been done at last against the “unprovoked, naked and blatant aggression against my country by Eritrea almost two years ago”.  Rarely had a sanctions resolution involved three countries, impacting on a whole region, and hopes were high in the Horn of Africa that today’s action would be the beginning of the end of the prolonged, destructive, senseless and wasteful wars and hostilities.  The measures outlined in the resolution targeted only the Eritrean regime’s destructive role in Somalia and its infringement of Djibouti’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.

 

He went on to point out that Eritrea had been “stonewalling” for one and a half years to avoid providing information about the conditions and whereabouts of 19 Djiboutian prisoners of war, while denying access to them by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.  However, Djibouti continued to treat Eritrean prisoners of war humanely, allowing access to all concerned.  He demanded that Eritrea, as a Member State of the United Nations, accept its international obligations under the Third Geneva Convention.

 

ELMI AHMED DUALE (Somalia) said Eritrea had been a major negative factor in prolonging the conflict in his country, while, on the Djibouti front, it had had demonstrated an unfriendly and non-neighbourly attitude all along.  Eritrea had been giving refuge and safe haven to known terrorists, rebels, spoilers and violators of human rights, whose purpose all along was to destabilize Somalia.  It had been providing, financing and facilitating the flow of arms and other resources to the extremists and terrorist elements in Somalia, as well as economic, political, moral and propaganda support to armed insurgents and spoilers.

 

He said Eritrea’s hostile activities of the past two decades included blatant sabotage of peace efforts and reconciliation, as well as frustrating the efforts of the previous Transitional National Government and the current Transitional Federal Government.  Despite all those hostile activities, however, the Transitional Federal Government was ready at any time to enter into serious dialogue with Eritrea to solve any outstanding matters, although that country’s past actions did not give confidence that it would change its hostile attitude.  Somalia therefore sought the support of the Council, the United Nations and the international community in confronting Eritrea squarely, now rather than later, and encouraging it to join the ongoing international efforts to enhance the ongoing peace and stabilization process in Somalia.

 

* *** *


For information media • not an official record

 

 

Ambassador Araya Desta permanent representative of Eritrea to the United Nations speech: http://webcast.un.org/ramgen/ondemand/stakeout/2009/so091223am2.rm

 

Ambassador Dr. Susan Elizabeth Rice permanent representative of USA to the United Nations speech: http://webcast.un.org/ramgen/ondemand/stakeout/2009/so

 

ሰነድ ቅድመን ብመንጸርን “ብዶሆታቱኣንጻር ማዕቀብ ዝሙጉት መጽናዕት።

 

ማዕቀብን ገብረገብነታዊ ፍርድታቱ ፡

 

ድሕሪ ምዝዛም ዙሑል ኪናት ዓለም፡ ማዕቀብ ቀንዲ ንዋት መሳርሒ መራጋገጺ ረብሓታት፡ ሓያላን ሃገራትን መንግስታት ዓለም ኣብ ልዕሊ ካብኣን ዝደኸማ ሃገራትን መንግስታት እንዳኾነ ይኸይድ ኣሎ። ብሓፈሻ ካብተን 5 ሓያላት ሃገራት፡ ብፍላይ ድማ ኣመሪካ ኣብ ዝኾነ ኩርንዓት ዓለም ናይ ጸጥታ ስትራተጂ ረብሓታት ምስ ዝህልዋን ከተዉሕስ ኣብ እትደልየሉ እዋናት ነዚ ናይ ማዕቀብ ንዋት ብሕጋዊ ኣጋባብ ብመገዲ ባይቶጸጥታ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ኣቢላ፡ ኣብ ልዕሊ ካልኦት መንግስታትን ሃገራትን ከተታኣታትዎን ክትጥቀመሉን መዓልታዊ ልሙድ ኮይኑ፡ እዚ ብኣድማዕነት እንተዘይሰርሔ እዉን ኣካላዉን ወትሃደራዉን ስጉምትታት ካብ ሙዉሳድ ድሕር ትብል ኣይኮነትን።

ማዕቀብ ብሰለስተ ዝተፈላለዩ ትሕዝቶ-መልክዓትን ደረጃታት ኣብ ዓለምና ይትግበር።

ቀዳማይ ማዕቀብ፡ ብቀጥታ ምቁራጽ ርክባት፡ ዲፕሎማስያዊን ምጣኔሃብታዊ ዝምድናታት እዩ። እዚ ዓይነት ማዕቐብ ብደረጃ ዉልቀ ሃገራት ማለት ሓንቲ ሃገር ምስ ካልእ ሃገር ወይ ድማ መላእማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ኣንጻር ሓንቲ ሃገር ዝገብሮ ማዕቀብ እዩ።

ካልኣይ ማዕቀብ፡ ንፉሉይ ጽላታት፡ ኣካላት፡ ንጥፈታት ሃገረ-መንግስት ዘናጻጸረ ማዕቀብ (smart sanction) ምግባር እዩ። እዚ ዓይነት ማዕቀብ ንዘጋጥም ጂኦ-ፖሎቲካዊን ምጣኔሃብታዉን ሕንፍሽፍሻትን ዶርጓዕጓዓት ናብ ንቡር መልክዓቱን ቅርጽን ንምቕራጽ ተባሂሉ ዝዝዉተር ኮይኑ ብደረጃ ዓለምለኻዊ ዝድንገግ ዓይነት ማዕቀብ እዩ።

ሳልሳይ ማዕቀብ፡ ነታ ማዕቀብ ዝድንገገላ ዘሎ ሃገረ-መንግስት፡ ናይ ኣጽዋር ምሽማትን ምሻጥን መሰላ ምሕራም። ናይ ፍሉይ ናይ ኣየር፡ ባሕሪን መሬት ናይ ምንቕስቓስ ዞናዊ ሕዛቲታት ምኽታይ እዉን ብደረጃ ዓለምለኻዊ ዝድንገግ ማዕቀብ እዩ።

እዚ ካልኣይ ዓይነት ማዕቀብ እዩ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሃገረ ኤርትራ ተወሲኑ ዘሎ። ዝርዝራት ናይቲ ማዕቀብን ኣብ ግብሪ ኣዋዕዕሉኡን ብደረጃ ኮሚቴ ስለዝዉሰን ከመይን እንታይን ክኸዉን እዩ ንመጻኢ ጊዝያት ዝጥመትን ኣብ ቀጻሊ ንኡስ ዛዕበታተይ ክትንትኖ እዩ።

እዞም ሰለስተ ዓይነት ማዕቀባት በብቦይኖም ወይ ድማ ብምትሕንፋጽ ክድንገጉን ክትግበሩ ስለዝራ”ዩ፡ ሓንሳብ ሓንስብ ደረቶምን ሕጋዉነቶምን ንምልላይ ጽልግልግ ዝብለሉ ጊዝያት እዉን ኣሎ።

ብሓፈሻ ዝኾነት ሃገርን መንግስት ካብ ዓለምለኻዊ ሕግታትን ገብረገብነታዊ ጥሕሶ-ዒብታታት ወጽያ ኣብ እትዕንድራሉ እዋናት መታን ሕግታት ዓለምለኸ ከተኽብርን ብሕጊ ዓለምለኸ ክትቅየድን ተባሂሉ ዝተፈላለየ ማዕቀባት ኣብ ልዕሊኣ ይድንገግ እዩ። ነዚ ናይ ማዕቀብ ድንጋጌ ናይ ምዉሳኑን ምጽዳቑ ስልጣን ዘለዎ ድማ ባይቶ-ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዓለም እዩ።

ዓለምለኻዊ ማዕቀብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሓደ ሃገረ-መንግስት ምስ ዝድንገግ፡ ኣዉንታዊ ኣሉታዊ ጽልዋታት ክህልዎ ይኽእል እኳ እንተኾነ፡ ካብ ኣዉንትኡ ኣሉቱኡ ዘመዝን እዩ።

ኣዉንታዊ ጽልዋ ዝህልዎ እቲ ዝግበር ማዕቀብ ኣብ ሓቕታትን ጭብጥታት ምስ ዝሙርከስን፡ ነቲ ባህርያቱ ዘርቐቀ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ዝተጠርነፈን ዝተዋደደን ተጻይን ተካኢ ሓይሊ ምስ ዝህልዎ ጥራይ እዩ። እቲ ምንታይስ ዉጽኢት፡ ጽልዋን ጸቕጥን ማዕቀብ ንዓንዳሪን ዘይሕጋዊ ኣጋባብ ኣካያይዳ ባህርያት እቲ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ንምቅያር፡ ልዕሊኡ ድማ ነቲ ስርዓት ኣብ ቕድሚ ህዝቡን ዓለምን ጥራይ ዕርቛኑ ብዲፕሎማስያዉን ምጣኔሃብታዊ ምሽምራራት ንምስጣሕ ተባሂሉ ዝካየድ ስለዝኾነ፡ ነቲ ብደገ ማዕቀብ ዝተገብረሉ መንግስት፡ ብዉሽጡ እዉን ብማዕረ ናይቲ ደጋዊ ማዕቀብ ህዝባዊ ዘይምእዙዙነትን ከቢድ ጸቕጥን ከጋጥሞ ኣለዎ። ከምኡ እንተኾይኑ ካብ ጨቢጥዎ ዘሎ ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣን ተናዙላት ክገብር ወይ ብቀሊሉ ክእለ ድማ ይኽእል።

ዓለምለኻዊ ማዕቀብ ተገይሩ ዉሽጣዊ ባዕላዊ ሮቓሒታት ዘይበሰለ እንተኾይኑ ግን፡ ከም ኩሎም ፖሎቲካዉያን ስርዓታት ዝተፈላለየ ዓለምለኻዊን በይንኣዉን ማዕቀባት ተገይርሎም ከብቕዕ ክሳብ ሕጂ ኣብ ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣን ዝቕጽሉ ዘለዉ፡ ክቕጽል ተኽእሎታት ህሉዉ እዩ። ንመረዳእታ ሊብያ፡ ሱርያ፡ ኩባ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ክንምልከት ይክኣል’ዩ።

ብመንጸር እዚ እቲ ዝግበር ዓለምለኻዊ ማዕቀብ ኣብ ዕሎቃን ዉዲታዊ ክልሰሓሳባዊ- ስትራተጂን ዝተመርኮሰ እንተኾይኑ ድማ ዓቢ ዕንወት ከስዕብ ይኽእል እዩ።

ምኽንያቱ ተዛማዲ ንጹሩን ሓቕታት መሰረት ዝገበረ እንተዘይኮይኑ፡ ብደረጃ ዓለምለኸ ሃገራት ነቲ ዝተገብረ ማዕቀብ ክጥሕስኦ ይኽእላ እየን፡ ንመረዳእታ ነዚ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሃገረ ኤርትራ ርትዓዊ ኣይኮነን ብምባል ስክፍታታተን ዝገለጻ 28 ሃገራን ንኡስ ሳሕል ስሃራ እዉን ኣለዋ። ልዕሊኡ ግን ኣብ ዉሽጥ እታ ሃገር ህዝባ ናብ ኣዝዩ ጸቢብ ሃገራዉነት (Narrow nationalism) ን ጽንፈነት (Radicalization) ገጹ እንዳተሳሕለ ስለዝኸይድ ከቢድ ሳዕቤናዊ-ሓደጋታት ዘለዎ እዩ።

ሓደ ህዝቢን ሃገርን ቀጻሊ ብባይቶ ጸጥታ-ማሕበር ሃገራት ወይ ብዉሱናት ኣባላቱ፡ ንረብሓታተን ንምርግጋጽ ክብላ ዓለምለኻዊ ሕጊ-ማዕቀብ ተጠቂመን፡ ከም ህዝብን ሃገርን ክጸቕጥኦ፡ ገንሸል ናይ ጸጥታ ስትራተጂኤን ክገብርኦ፡ ከዋስንኦን ክግልልኦ (marginalize) ዝህቕና እንተኾይነን ልክዕ ከምዚ ኣብ ሶማል፡ ኣፍጋኒስታን፡ ፓኪስታን፡ ኢራቕ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ዝርኤ ዘሎ ኩነታት ክፍጠር ተኽእሎታት ኣሎ። ልዕሊኡ ግን ኣብ ክንዲ ነቲ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ብዉሽጥ ህዝባዊ ዘይሙኡዙዙነት ዝገጥሞ፡ ብኣንጻሩ ህዝባዊ ደገፍ ክህሉዎ ዘገብር ስጉምቲ እዩ። ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ክትቕይር ድማ ወሳኒ ባዕላዊን ዉሽጣዉ ሮቛሒታት እንበር ግዳማዊ ጽቅጥታት ስለዘይኮነ እዩ።

መላእ ዓለም ከምዝፈልጦ ኣብ ታሪኽ ኤርትራ ግዳይ ናይ ረብሓታት ኣመሪካን ብሪጣንያን ኮይና እያ። ኣብ 1950 ዓ.ም.ፍ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ሙሉእ ናጽነት ክብል እንኮሎ፡ ኣመሪካን ዓባይ ብሪጣንያን ንጸጥታዊ ስትራተጅኤን ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃን ማእከላይ ምብራቕ ንምዉሓስ ብሓፈሻ፡ ብፍላይ ድማ ንኣብቲ እዋን እቲ ከም ሓዳሽ ሃገር ናይ ኣህዳዉያን ተመስሪታ ዝነበረት እስራኤል  ንምሕላዉ ተባሂሉ፡ ከም ናይመራኸቢታትን ወትሃደራዊ ስትራተጂን ኤርትራ ምችእቲ ስለዝኾነት፡ ናይ መራኸቢታት ማእከል ኣብ ሬድዮ መሪና፡ ወትሃደራዊ ማዓስከር ድማ ኣብ ቛኘዉን ማይዕዳጋን ንምዱካን ተባሂሉ ንኤርትራ ብፈደረሽን ኣብ ትሕቲ ሓዳስ-ግዝእቲ ኢትዮጵያ ከምትጽመድ ገይሮማ እዮም። ብግብሪ ድማ ኣብ ኤርትራ ወትሃደራዉን ስለያዉን ማዓስከራት ሃኒጾም ተጠቂሞምሉ እዮም።

ነዚ ሓቕታት እዚ ብዘይስክፍታን ሕብእብእን እዉን ኣብቲ እዋን እቲ ቀዋሚ ተወካሊ ንዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዝነበረ ናይ ኣመሪካ ኢምባሳደር ጆን ፎስተር ዳላስ “ኣመሪካዉያን ዘሎና ረብሓ ኣብቲ ከባቢ ስለዘሎ፡ ኤርትራ ንኢትዮጵያ ሂብናያ ኣሎና” ኢሉ እዩ ዝደርግሖ። ቀጺሉ እምባሮጦራዊ ሃይለስላሴ ነቲ ብባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዉሳኔ ፈደረሽን ኣፍሪሲ፡ ኤርትራ ሓንቲ ክፍሊ ሃገር ናይ ኢትዮጵያ ምኻና ክእዉጅ እንኮሎ፡ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ምጽቃጡን፡ ከምሳዕቤኑ ን30 ዓመታት ዓለምለኻዊ ተነጽሎን ዘይተቐባልነትን ዘንጸላለዎ ደማዊ ኩናት ኣካይዱ ድሕሪ ምዕዋቱ፡ ሕጂ እዉን ኣብ መንጎ ኢትዮጵያን ኤርትራን ኣይኪናት ኣይሰላም ኣንዳተራእየን እንዳተፈልጠን እንኮሎ ምጽቓጡ፡ ኩሉ ጊዝየ ዉሳኔታት ባይቶ ጸጥታ ብ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ጥርጣሬታት ክህልዎ ባህርያዊ እዩ።

ብመርትዖ ንምስናዩ፡ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ንማዕቀብ ዝተጥቕመሉ ሮቓሒ ኣብ መንጎ ጅቡቲን ኤርትራ ዘሎ ዶባዊ ምስሕሓብ እዩ። ኣብ ጅቡቲ ዘሎ ወትሃደራዉን ስለያዉን ማዓስከራት ኣመሪካን ፈረንሳን ንምሕላዉ እምበር ኣብ መንጎ ኤርትራን ጅቡቲን ዘሎ ዶባዊ ግርጭታት ንምፍታሕ ተባሂሉ ከምዘይኮነ እዉን ክፍለጥ ዝግብኦ እዩ።

ድርብ መዕየሪታትን መርገጺታትን ዘለዎ ባይቶ ጸጥታ፡ ነዚ ማዕቀብ ክዉስን ዝተጠቕመሉ ካልኣይ ሮቓሒ፡ ኣብ መንጎ ጅቡቲን ኤርትራን ዘሎ ዶባዊ ምስሕሓብ ካብ ኮነ። እንተድኣ ዶባዊ ምስሕሓብ ንማዕቀብ ቀንዲ ደጋፊ ሮቓሒ ክኸዉን ዝኽእል እንተኾይኑ፡ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ንምንታይ ብመሰረት ስምምዕ ኣልጀርስ 2000 ዓ.ም.ፍ ኢትዮጵያ ንናይ መጨረስታን ቀያድን ዉሳኔ ዶብ ኮምሽን ኤርትራን ኢትዮጵያን ተሰማሚዓ ከተብቕዕ፡ ኮምሽን ዶብ ዉሳኔ ምስ ሃበ ኣካላዊ ምሕንጻጽ ዶብ ንከይትግበር ዕጭ ሓርጊጣ ከተብቕዕ ማዕቀብ ዘይገበረላ? እቲ መልሱ ቀሊል እዩ። ኢትዮጵያ መሻርኽቲ መንግስት ኣመሪካ ስለዝኾነት እዩ። ብዓቢኡ ኣመሪካዉያን ንኢትዮጵያ ከም ንዋት ተጠቂሞም ከም ኣመሎም ኣብዚ ከባቢ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ከራጋግጽዎ ዝደልዩ ስትራተጂካዊ ረብሓታት ስለዘለዎም እዩ።

ርግጸኛ እየ፡ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ንኣብያ ኢትዮጵያ ኣካላዊ ምምልካት ዶብ ኣመልኪቱ ማዕቀብ ክገብረላ እንተዝህቕን፡ መንግስት ኣመሪካ ክሳብ ናይ ዉሳኔን ድንጋጌን ናይ ምዕጋት ስልጣኑ ክጥቀም ከምዝኽእል ፍሉጥ እዩ። ኣብዚ ሕጂ እዋናት’ዚ ዝርኤ ዘሎ ዝዉትር ጸባያትን ዓለምለኻዊ ኣሳራሓሓትን፡ ኣብ ዝኾነ ኩርንዓት ዓለም ኣመሪካ እንተዘይረዲዩ ዝኾነ ይኹን ግርጭት ክፍታሕ ከምዘይክእል እዩ።

 

ባይቶ-ጸጥታ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ንምንታይ እዩ ንመንግስት ኤርትራ ማዕቀብ ክገብረሉ ዝደሊ ዘሎ?

ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት (UN) ኣቓውሙን ሚስጢራዊ ትሕዝትኡ፡

ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ከም መተካእታ ማሕበር ሃገራት (league of nations) ድሕሪ ካልኣይ ኩናት ዓለም ብዕለት 26/06/1945 ብ51 ሃገራት ካብኣን 5 ሃገራርት ፍጹም ዓብላልነት ስልጣን ዝዉሃበ ኾይኑ ዝቆመ ማሕበር ኮይኑ፡ ኣብ ምቕራጹ፡ ምዉጣኑ፡ ምንዳፉ ግን ሕቡኣን ማሕበራትን secret societies መንፈሳዊን ዓለማዊ ፍላስፋታት ኣብ ሰይጣንን ጣኦታዊ ምልክታት ዝኣምኑ (Luciferian&Freemeson) ዝነበርዎ እዩ። ሕቡራት ሃገራት ከምቲ ኣብ ቀዳማይን ካልኣይን ኪናት ዓለም ዝተጋህደ ሰፍ ዘይብል ንዋታዉን ሰብኣዉን ዕንወት ንብድሕሪ ሕጂ ንከይግሃድ፡ ኣብ ዓለምን ሰብኣዉነትን ጸጥታን ሰላምን ንምርግጋጽ ተባሂሉ ዝተመስረተ እኳ እንተኮነ፡ ቀንዲ ዕላማታቱ ግን፡-

  1. 1.      መሳርሒን መራጋገጺ ረብሓታት  5 ዓበይትን ሓያላትን ሃገራት ዓለም ዝኾና፡ ኣብ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ናይ ተዉቒፍ(ምግታእ) ስልጣን (Veto power) ዘለወን፡ ኣመሪካ፡ ቻይና፡ ፈረንሳ፡ ራሻን እንግሊዝን ንምርግጋጽን፡ ኣብ ነንሕድሕደን ከመይ ተሳማሚዔን ንዓለም ይመርሓኣ ዘራጋግጽ ንዋት ብምኻኑ እዩ።
  2. 2.      ኣብ ዓለም ብመንገዲ መዋቕርን ጥርናፌ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራትን ካብ ማእከል ቤት/ጽሕፈት ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራትን ካልኦት ተላዒለን ዝናጣጠፋ ዘይመንግስታዊ፡ እምነታዊን ብስም ተጣበቕቲ ሰብኣዊ መሰላት ዝነጥፋ ማሕበራት (NGO) ጌርካ ኣብ ዓለም ሓደ መንግስትን ሓደ ሃይማኖትን ንምርግጋጽ ዝዓለመ ስለዝኾነ እዩ።

ታሪኽ ወድሰብ ብሓፈሽኡ ክርኤ እንተተደልዩ ብዘይካ እቲ ኩሉ ዝርእዮን ዝምስክሮ ኣካላዊ ፍጻሜታት፡ ድምራት ናይ ዉዲታትን ምድንጋራት እዩ። ምኽንያቱ ብድሕሪ እቲ ፍጻሜታት፡ ነቲ ፍጻሜታት ጋህዲ ንክኸዉን ዝድረኸ ዉዲታዊ ክልሰሓሳብ፡ ዳይነሚክስን ኣእዳዉን ስለዝነበሮ እዩ። ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ክቀዉም እንኮሎ ሓድሽ ዓለማዊ ትእዛዝ (New World Order) ንምትእትታዉን ንምትግባርን ዝዓለመን ዝተፈጥረን እዩ። እዚ ሓድሽ ዓለማዊ ትእዛዝ ብዘይካ እቲ ቀንድ ምጣኔሃብታዉን ካልኦት ረብሓታት ምርግጋጽ መንፈሳዉን ፖሎቲካዉን ንጹር ዕላማ ዘለዎ እዩ። ንሱ ድማ ኣብ ዓለም ብመንገዲ መዋቕርን ጥርናፌ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራትን ካብ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራትን ካልኦት ተላዒለን ዝናጣጠፋ ዘይመንግስታዊ ማሕበራት ጌርካ ኣብ ዓለም ሓደ መንግስትን ሓደ ሃይማኖትን ንምርግጋጽ ዝዓለመ እዩ። እዘን ኣብዚ እዋናት እንርእየን ዘሎና ካብ ቀንዲ ፋለግ (main stream) ዓበይቲ ጥንታዊ እምነታት ተፋናጭለን ዝነጥፋ ዘለዋ ንኡሳን እምነታት፡ ካብ መጫጭሕ ሃይማኖታት ዝኾኑ ሕቡኣን ሕብረተሰባት ዝነቕላ ኮይነን፡ ብእምነቶም “ ነቲ ዝመጽእ ዘሎ ሓድሽ ዓለማዊ ትእዛዝ፡ ሓደ ንግስነትን ሃይማኖት ዓለምና፡ ንወዲሰብ ዝቕርባ እየን” ተባሂሉ ይእመነለን። እቲ ዝሓሰብዎን ዝሕሰብ ዘሎ  ሓደ ዓለምለኻዊ መንግስት ብሊስፈርያዉያንን ብፊሪመሶናዉያንን ዝምራሕን ንመንፈሳዉን ነገራዉን ባህግታቶም ዘራጋግጽ ክኸዉን እዩ። ነዚ ናይ መጨረስታ ዕላማ ንምብጻሕ ንኣህዛብን ሃገራት ዓለም ኣስካሕካሒ ዝኾነ ሂወት ዓሰርተታት ሚልዮናት ዝልክም ኪናት፡ ተላባዲ-ሕማም፡ ግርጭታት፡ ጥሜት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ኣታኣታቲኻ ህዝቢ ዓለም ከምዘስካሕክሕን ከም ዝምብርኸኽን ትገብሮ እሞ ኣብ መጨረስት ምርጫ ወዲ ሰብ ሰላም ስለዝኸዉን፡ ንምርጭኡ መዝሚዝካ ንፍጹም ሙኡዙዝ ጊልያ ቀይርካ፡ ሓደ ዓለምለኻዊ ንግስነትን መንፈሳዊ እምነት ሊስፈራዉያን ንምርግጋጽ እዩ።

እዚ ጽዉጽዋይ ዝመስል ትንተና ኣነ ዝብሎ ዘሎኹ ኣይኮነን፡ ባዕላቶምን ቡዙሓት ፈሊጣናቶምን ናይ ዓለም ዝገልጽዎን ዝትንትንዎን እዩ። ብግብሪ ድማ ከምኡ እዩ ዝኸይድ ዘሎ። እንተድኣ ኣስተብሂልና  ድሕሪ ምዝዛም ዙሑል ኪናት ዓለም ተዳልዩ ዝጸንሔ ፖሊሲታት ዓለምለኻዊ ዓዉላማ (Globalization) እዩ ተኣታትዩ። ዓለምለኻዊ ፖሊሲታት ዓዉላማ ብምዕባሌ ቴክኒሎጂካዊ ሰዉራ ን ዝርግሔ ቴክነሎጂ ሓቤሬታ ንዓለም ንጸባብ ቁሸት እኳ እንተቀየራ፡ ብኣንጻሩ ንስነሓሳብ ህዝብን ሃገርን (nation state) ኣዳቂቁ ንሕብረተሰባት ንኣህላኺ (Consumer) ቀይርዎ ኣሎ። ዉድቀት ስነሓሳብን ህዝብን ሃገርን ድማ ንዲሞክራሲ እንዳወገነ ፍጹም ናዚነት ወይ ምልካዊ ስልጣኔ ዘንግስ እዩ። ነዚ ብመርትዖ ንምስናዩ ድማ፡-

1.ንኣምርን ስነሓሳብን ህዝብን ሃገርን ሰጊርካ ዝግበር ዞናዊ ወይ ዓለምለኻዊ ምጣኔሃብታዉን ወትሃደራዉን ምጥርናፋት።

2. ዓለምለኻዊ ዓዉሎማዊ ፖሊሲ፡ ዓለምለኻዊ ሲቪላዊ መንነት ንክፈጥር ስለዝህቅን፡ ነዚ ህቀናታት እዚ ስነሓሳብ ህዝቢን ሃገርን ክጸሮ ስለዘይክእል፡ ምስራዝ መንነትን ምጥፋኣ ኣንፈት ስለዝፈጥር፡ ብስነሓሳብን ኣምር ህዝብን ሃገር ተጠርኒፉ ዝነበረ ኣህዛብ ሃለዋቱ ንምንዳይ ናብ ቕድመ ሱሩት ዝምድናታት ማለት ቀቢላ፡ እንዳ፡ ኤትኒክዊ-ጉጂለ፡ ሃይማኖት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ተመሊሱ ነንሕድሕዱ ኣብ ዘይተደልየ ኪናትን ህልቒትን ከምዝሸምም ስለዝገብሮ እዩ።

ነቲ ኣቀዲመ ዝጣሕመስክዎ ሓሳባት ዝዕኾኾ ዝተወከስክዎ ነዚ ዝስዕብ መጽናዕታዊ ሓቤሬታ ብእብረ ተመልከት፡-

1. ቀዳማይ ቪድዮ

2. ካልኣይ ቪድዮ

3. ሳልሳይ ቪድዮ

4. ራብዓይ ቪድዮ

5. ሓሙሻይ ቪድዮ

6. ሻዱሻይ ቪድዮ

7. ሻዉዓይ ቪድዮ

8. ሻሙናይ ቪድዮ

9. ታሽዓይ ቪድዮ

10. ዓስራይ ቪድዮ

ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ኣቓዉሙኡን ዕላማታቱን ከምዚ ካብ ኮነ፡ ኤርትራዉያን ከም ሃገርን ህዝብን ብዉልቕና ንቕይሮ ነገር የሎን። ነዚ ክዉንነትን ሓቕታትን ተረዲኦም ዝቃወሙን ዝቃለሱን ሃገራትን ኣህዛብን  ዉሑዳት ዉሑዳት ከምዘይኮኑ ክዝንጋዕ ዘይብሉ ሓቕታት እዩ። ስለዚ ፈቲና ጸሊኢና ኣብ ዉሽጥ እዚ ዓይነት ኣቓዉማ፡ ኣሳራርሓን ዕላማ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ከመይ ጌርና ረብሓታትና ንሕሉ ምፍላጥን ዝተገርሔ ፖሊሲታትን ኣጋባብ ኣካያይዳ ምዝዉታር ካብ ቀንዲ ግዴታትና እዩ። ነዚ ኩዉንነት ብዉልቀ ሃገር ክቕይሮ ወይ ክቃለሶ እየ ኢልካ ምሕሳብ ከምዚ ብግንባር ርእስኻ ምስ ከዉሒ ምርጻም ወይ ንነብስኻ ጹሉል ምስራሕ ስለዝኾነ፡ ብዓሚቕ ኣፍሉጦ ልዙቡን ተዓጻጻፊ ዲፕሎማስያዊ ስትራተጅ ክህልወና ግድነታዊ እዩ።

 

ባይቶ ጸጥታን መዝታቱ፡

ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዓለም ንሰላምን ጸጥታን  ኣብ መንጎ ሃገራት ዓለም ንምርግጋጽ፡ ዝተመዘ ፍሉይ ኣካል ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዓለም እዩ። ካልኦት ኣካላት ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዓለም ጠለባት ወይ ዝሓይሽ ዝብልኦ ርእይቶታት ንኣባላት ማሕበር መንግስታት ክህባ ጥራይ ዘኽእል መዝነት ክህልወን እንኮሎዋ፡ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ግን ብፍላይ ቀያዲ ዉሳኔታት ብመሰረት ማሕበር መንግስታት ዝተሳማማዓሉ ኣብ ትሕቲ ቻርተር ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዓለም “ዓንቀጽ-25” ፍሉይ ስልጣን ዘለዎ እዩ። ዉሳኔታት ባይቶ ጸጥታ ድማ ናይ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉሳኔ ተባሂሉ ይፍለጥ።

ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዓለም ብ 15 ኣባላት ሃገራት ዝቀዉም ባይቶ ኮይኑ፡ 5 ካብኣተን ቀጻሊ ቀወምቲ  ናይ ቀያዲ ዉሳኔታት ተዉቒፍ(ምግታእ) ስልጣን (Veto power) ዘለወን፡ ኣመሪካ፡ ቻይና፡ ፈረንሳ፡ ራሻን እንግሊዝን እየን። እተን 10 ዘይቀወምት ኣባላት ባይቶ ጸጥታ ኣብ ነፍስወከፍ 2 ዓመት ብሓፈሻዊ ባይቶ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዓለም ኣብ ዞባዉነት ዝተመስረታ ተመሪጸን ን2 ዓመታት የገልግላ። መራሒ ( The presidency) ባይቶ ጸጥታ ካብቶም 15 ኣባላት ባይቶ ጸጥታ ኣብ ነፍስ ወከፍ ወርሒ ዝቃያየር ኮይኑ፡ እቲ ምቕይያራት ድማ ብላቲናዊ-ፊደላዊ (alphabetically )ቕድመተከተል ብእብረ ዝመጸዊዔን ኣስማት ሃገራት ይዝዉተር። ኣብ ኣጋባብ ኣካታትዑን ኣጋባብ ዉሳኔ ኣታሓላልፍኡ ብድምጺ እኳ እንተኾነ፡ ሓንቲ ካብተን ናይ ትዉቒፍ (ምግታእ) ስልጣን ዘለዋ ስልጣና ክትጥቀመሉ እንተወሲና ቀያዲ ዉሳኔ ክሓልፍ ኣይክእልን እዩ። ነቲ መስርሓት ዘተ ዉሳኔታት ንክዝተ ግን ኣብ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዝገትእ ስልጣን የሎን።

ስለዚ ኡጋንድ ናይ ሓደ ወርሒ ንባይቶ ጸጥታ ናይ ምምራሕ ስልጣንን እብረን ምስሃለዋ እያ ንረቂቕ ናይ ማዕቀብ ንድፊ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ ነዲፋ ኣቕሪባ ተቀባልነት ክረክብ ዝጎስጎሰትሉን ዝተናጣጠፈትሉን። እዚ ብኡጋንዳ ቀሪቡ ዘሎ ንድፊ፡ ጥራይ ብኡጋንዳ ዝተሓስበን ዝተሓንጸጸን ድማ ክኸዉን ኣይክእልን እዩ። ምኽንያቱ ኣብ ፖሎቲካዊ ጸወታ ምዉስሳብ (A Political Puzzle) ዓለም ከምኡ ዝባሃል ነገር ሰለዘየሎ እዩ ። ከም ሓላፍነት ግን ኡጋንዳ ብሪዴታ ዝተሰከምቶ ምኻኑ ጥራይ ሰብ ክግንዘቦ ዝክኣል። ኡጋንዳ ንኸምዚ ዝኣመሰለ ኣብ ታሪኽ ፈጺሙ ክርሳዕ ዘይክእል ሓላፍነት ክትስከም እንኮላ፡ በደሉኡ እንታይ ዓስቢ ክትረክብ ምኻና ድማ ቀስ ኢልካ ዝረኤን ዝምዘንን ጉዳይ እዩ።

ከርስን ድሪኺት ናይቲ ማዕቀብ፡                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

ኣቀዲሙ ካብ 1945 ጀሚሩ ብሓፈሻ ፈጺሙ ዘይቃያየር ናይ ኣመሪካ ናይ ግዳም ፖሊሲ ንመላእ ዓለም ዘተኮረ ኣኳ እንተሃለወ፡ ምስ ምትእትታዉ ዓዉላማዊ ፖሊሲ፡ ብፍላይ ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ካብ 1991 ዓ.ም.ፈ ጀሚሩ፡ ሓደ ዞናዉን ዓዉላማዉን ናይ ጸጥታ ስትራተጅ ንክትግበር ዝተዋደደ ኣሎ። እዚ ብፍላይ ብመንግስታት ሕቡራት ሃገራት ኣሜሪካ፡ ብሓፈሻ ድማ ሕጅ ኢትዮጵያ፡ ኬንያን ኡጋዳን ዝተሓወስኦ ንሶማል ከም ማእከል-ስሕበት ጸሚዱ፡ ንመላእ ቀርኒ-ኣፍሪቃ ኣመልኪቱ ዝተሓንጸጸ ክትግበር ዝፍተን ዘሎ ፍሉይ ስትራተጂካዊ ቅዲ እዩ። እዚ ስትራተጂ ብቀጥታ ብኣርካናት ኪናት ብምዋል ተኻይዱ ጽንፈነት ወይ ኣስላማዊ ጥሩኑፍነት ኣሉታ ሳዕቤናት ወሊዱ፡ ብወትሃደራዊ ኢትዮጵያ ወራር ተፈቲኑ ክዕወት ኣይክኣለን። ቀጺሉ ብኣኽበርት ጸጥታ ኣብ ትሕቲ ኣፍሪቃዊ ሕብረት ዘጽለሉ፡ ካብ ዝተፈላለያ ሃገራት ኣፍሪቃ ኣትዮንኦ እዉን፡ ኣንካይዶ ነቲ ስትራተጂ ክዕዉታስ ተዛማዲ ጸጥታን ምርግጋእን ኣብ ዉሽጥ ሶማል ከራጋግጻ እዉን ኣይተኻእለን። ቀጺሉ ነቲ መሳጋገሪ መንግስት ሶማልያ ተባሂሉ ዝፍለጥ ብማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ተቐባልነት ዝረኸበ፡ ንምሕያሉ ተባሂሉ ብሕቡራት ሃገራት ኣሜሪካ ዝተመወለ 40 ቶን ዝተፈላለየ ፎኪስን ማእከላይ ክብደት ዘለዎ ኣጽዋር ንሶማል ኣትዩ። ኣንካይዶ ነቲ ስትራተጂ ከዕዉትስን ነቲ መሳጋገሪ መንግስት ከደልድልን ንነብሱ ክኻላኸል ኣይሓገዞን። ብኣንጻሩ እቲ ዝኣተወ ኣጽዋር ኣብ ጸሊም-ዕዳጋ የመንን ሶማልያን  በቶም ኣርካናት-ኪናት ሶማልያ (Lords of war) ክሽየጥ ጀሚሩ።

ሕጂ ነዚ ዓቢ ስትራተጂካዊ ፍሽለት ሓላፍነት ዝስከም ክናደ ወይ ክህሉ ኣለዎ። እቲ ጠንቕ ፍሽለት ብዓቢኡ  ብሓፈሻ ናይ ሓንጸጽቱን ናይ ወጻኢ ጉጉይ ሜላታት  ብፍላይ ድማ ናይ ተግበርቱ ኣካላዊን ፖሎቲካዉን ምእትታዉ ከንሱ፡ ጠንቕ ናይ’ዚ እስትራተጂካዊ ፍሽለት ኢደ-ምትእትታዉ መንግስት ኤርትራ ስለዘሎ’ዩ ብምባል ክሲ መስሪቶም። ነዚ መደምደምታ ዘብጽሖም ምኽንያታት ከገልጹ እንኮሎዉ ድማ፡ “መንግስት ኤርትራ ንዑጡቃት ኣልሸባብ ምስ ኣልቓዒድ ዓለምለኻዊ ናይ ግብረ-ሽበራ ግንባር ምትእስሳር ዘለዎም ወትሃደራዊ ታዕሊም፡ ኣጽዋር፡ እኩብ ስለያዊ ሓቤሬታ ልዕሊኡ ድማ ወትሃደራዉያን ኣማኸርቲ ይህብ ብምህላዉ፡ ንሓይሊ ኣሸባብ ኣጣናኺሩ ናይ ወትሃደራዊ ስርሒት ዓብላልነት ስለዝዕተሮም፡ ሰላምን ምርግጋእን ኣብ ሶማል ክራጋገጽ ኣይተኽእለን ዘሎ ይብሉ”። ስለዚ ንኣልሸባብ ከነዳኽምን ወትሃደራዊ ስርሒታዊ ጸብለልነቱ ከነዳኽም እንተኼና ነዛ ንኣልሸባብ ትሕግዝ ዘላ ሃገር ኤርትራ ማዕቀብ ክንገብረላ ኣሎና ካብዝብል ስልታዊ ቅመራ ዝነቕል እዩ።

ኣብ ሶማል ግን ኣልሸባብ ጥራይ ኣይኮነን ዑጡቕ ዉድብ ዘሎ። ብዘይካ ሓረካት ኣልሸባብ ኣልሙጃሂዲን ብሙኹታር ዓሊ ዝቬር ዝምራሕ፡ ሕዝበል እስላም ዝብሃል ብሓሰን ዳሂር ኣዌስን ካልኦት ብኣርካናት-ኪናት ዝምርሑ ዑጡቃት ንእስ ንእስ ዝበሎ ጉጂለታትን ሲቪላዉያን ምንቕስቃሳት ዘለዋ ሃገር እያ። እዞም ክልተ ዓበይቲ እስላማዊ ምንቕስቃሳት እዉን ንጁባ ቫሊ ብሓዲኦም ንምቁጽጻር ኣብ ጽዑቕ ኪናት ሕድሕድ ዝርከቡ ዘለዉ እዮም። ስለዚ ስርዓት ኣስመራ ብልክዕ ንመን ከምዝሕግጽ ንጹር ኣይኮነን፡ የግዳስ ንሓረካት ኣልሸባብ ኣልሙጃሂዲን እዩ ዝሕግዝ ይባሃል ኣሎ። ሓረካት ኣልሸባብ ኣልሙጃሂዲን ኣብቲ ዋዕላ ሶማላዉያን ኣብ ኣስመራ ዝተኻየደ ኣይነበረን ብኣንጻሩ እዉን ኣንጻር ኤርትራን ኡጋንዳን ጂሃዳዊ ኪናት ዝኣወጀ እዩ። ምናልባሽ ንሕዝበል እስላም  ብሓሰን ዳሂር ኣዌስ ዝምራሕ ይሕግዝ እንተዝባሃል ምስቲ ሓሰን ዳሂር ኣዌስ ኣብ ዋዕላ ኣስመራን ኣብ ኤርትራ ምንባሩ ኣብ ግምት ብምእታዉ ንምቕባሉ ቡዙሕ ኣይምስኣጸገመን ነይሩ ዝብል ገምጋም ኣሎኒ።

ንክስታቶምን ኣባህላታቶም  ሓቒ ምኻኑ ንማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ንምእማን ድማ ትንፋስ ዘይህብን ብዝተፈላለየ መልክዓት እንዳተቃያየረ ክስታት ኣብ ድስቲ ዓበይቲ መራኸቢ-ቡዙሓን ዓለም ክጥጥቕን ክኽወስን ንሰለስተ ዓመታት መመላእታ ጽዑቕ ምምኽኻርን ዘመታትን ተኻይድሉ እዩ።

ብሓቂ እንተኾይኑ ግን መንግስት ኣመሪካ ይኹን ተሓባበርቱ ሃገራት ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ንሶማልያዉያን ብገንዘብ ብኣጽዋርን ብስለያዊ ሓቤሬታ ኣዮኖት ሃገራት ወይ መነመን ምኻኖም ዝሕግዝዎም ኣጸቢቆም ዝፈልጡ  ምኻኖም እዮ። ኣመሪካዉያን ንኩነታት ሶማልያ ኣመልኪቶም ሓገዛት ንከይምጥዋ ዝተዛተይወን ሃገራት ግብጺ፡ ሊብያ፡ ሱዕድ-ዓረብ፡ ቐጠር፡ ሶርያን የመን እዉን ኣለዋ።

መንግስት ኤርትራ ክሕግዞ ወይ ክሸጦ ዝኽእል መጠን ሓገዛት ወይ ኣጽዋር ማዕረ ክንደይ ምኻኑ እዉን ጽቡቕ ገይሮም ይፈልጡ እዮም። ከም ማእከላይ ኣማሓላላፊ ኣብ መንጎ ሶማልን ካልኦት ሃገራትን ኮይኑ፡  ዝሰርሕ እንተሃሊዩ ድማ ነቲ ምንጭ ንክልኮኽ ምግባር ኣኻሊ ምስ ኮነ ነይሩ።

እስከ ምእንቲ ርትዒ ካብ ኣካለይን መንፈሰይ ካይርሕቕ፡ ገለ ሕቶታት ንታሪኽ ከልዕል። መንግስት ኣመሪካ ኣሽሓት ማይልስ ነጢራ፡ ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ረብሓታታ ንምርግጋጽ ኣካላዉን ፖሎቲካዉን ንጥፈታት ተካይድ እንትኾይና፡ ኡጋንዳን ረዋንዳን ቀጥታዊ ዶባዊ ጉርብትና ምስ ሶማልያ ዘይብለን ዝትኣታተዋ እንተኾይነን ኤርትራ ምእታዋ ስለምንታይ እዩ ብድርብ መዕየሪታት ዝጥመት ዘሎ? ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ሰላምን ምርግጋእን ክፍጠር እንተኾይኑ ኸ ሓንቲ ወይ ክልተ ሃገራት ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ከምዚ ናይ ጉስጥ መላማመዲ ትርንሽዋ ኣብ ቅድሜኻ ሰቂልካ ተግስጦ፡ ብሙግሳጥን ብምንጻል ይክኣል ድዩ? ንስርዓት ኣስመራ ኣንጻር እዚ ኣመሪካዊ ስትራተጂ ደዉ ኣቢልዎ ዘሎ፡ እንታይ ምኻኑ ኸ ዘይፍለጥ ምስጢር ድዩ? እቲ ጉዳይ ብዛዕባ ሶማልን ጅቡቲን ድዩ ወይስ ብዛዕባ ካልእ ስትራተጂካዊ ረብሓታት? ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ኣመሪካዉያን ናይ ብሓቂ ሰላምን ምርግጋእን ክፈጥሩ ዝደልዩ እንተሃልዮም ስለምንታይ ኣብ መንጎ ኢትዮጵያን ኤርትራን ዘሎ ምስሕሓባት ሓደ መዕልቦ ክገብሩሉ ዘይጽዕሩ?…ወ.ዘ.ተ ቡዙሓት ክልዓሉን ክምለሱን ዝግብኦም ሕቶታት እዉን ኣለዉ።

እቲ ኾይኑ እዚ ብሓፈሻ መንግስት ኤርትራ ዞባዊ ረብሓታቱን ጸብለልነቱ ንምርግጋጽን ንምዉሓስ፡ ብፍላይ ድማ ንስርዓት ኣዲስ-ኣበባ (ወያኔ) ንምድኻሙ፡ ንተቃወምቲ ስርዓት ወያኔ ዉሽጣዉያን ይኹን ግዳማዉያን ይዕበ ይንኣስ ክሕግዝ ምኻኑ ዘጣራጥር ኣይኮነን። ብኣንጻሩ ድማ ስርዓት ወያኔ ከምኡ ክገብር እዩ።

ልዕሊ ኹሉ ሓደ ጡዑይ ሓታቲ ተረኺቡ ኣቱም ኣመሪካዉያን፡ መሻርኽት ኣመሪካ ዝኾንኩም ኢትዮጵያዉያን፡ ኬንያዉያን፡ ኡጋንዳዉያንን…ወ.ዘ.ተ ግዓትን ተማጻደቕቲ ናይ ዉሳኔ ማዕቀብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ፡ ከመይ ገይራ እያ እዛ ንእሽቶ፡ ሓዳስ፡  ድኻ፡  ድሕርቲ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ዝኾነት ሃገር ነዚ ኣዝዩ ረቂቕ ስትራተጂኩም፡ ጉዙፍ ገንዘባዊን ቴክኖሎጂካዊ፡ ዓለምለኻዊ ተሰማዕነትኩም፡ ብዝሒ ሃገራት ደገፍትኹም…ወ.ዘ.ተ ብዓይነትን ዓቀንን ዓቕምታትኩም በዲሃ ብኢድ ኣዙር ክትስዕረኩም ወይ ማዕረ ክንዲዚ ዝኣክል ማዕቀብ ንክትገብሩላ ከተገድደኩም ኪኢላ ተባሂሎም እንተዝሕተቱ እንታይ መልሲ ኮን ምስ ሃቡ?

ኣብዚ ብንጹር ክፍለጥ ዘለዎ ጉዳይ ኣሎ፡ ስርዓት ኣስመራ ወግሔ ጸብሔ ንሶማላዉያን ፖሎቲካዊን ግብረገብነታዊ ሓገዝ ከምዝህብ፡ ጉዳይ ሶማላዉያን ብሶማላዉያን ጥራይ ክፍታሕ ከምዝኽእል ዝብል እምነት ከምዘለዎን፡ ዘይብልና ኾይኑ እንበር ፋይናንሳዉን ኣጽዋራዉን ሓገዛት ክንሕግዞም እዉን ድሕር ከምዘይብሉ ወትሩ ዘተንብህዎ ዘረባ እዩ። ስለዚ ሓገዝ ማለት ድማ ንዋታዊ ጥራይ ማለት ኣይኮነን። ፖሎቲካዊ፡ ሞራላዊ፡ ጉባኤታቶም ዘካይድሉ ቦታታት ምጥጣሕ፡ ዝንቀሳቀስሉ ደጀን…ወ.ዘ.ተ ተሳስንን ተፍቕድን እንተኼንካ ትሕግዝ ኣሎኻ ማለት ስለዝኾነ፡ ስርዓት ኣስመራ ንሶማላዉያን ይሕግዝ ምኻኑ ኣብ ምልክት ሕቶ ዝኣቱ ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን። የግዳስ ካልኦት ሃገራት ንገለ ሶማላዉያን ዝሕጉዙ እንተኾይኖም፡ ስለምንታይ ከ ኤርትራ ንገለ ሶማላዉያን ንክትሕግዝ እትሕረም?

ንስርዓት ኣስመራ ናብ’ዚ ናይተጻይን ወጻኢ ካብቲ ክሊ-ሳጹን ኣታሓሳስባ እስትራተጂካዊ ቅዲ ኣመሪካዉያንን መሻርኽቱ ሃገራት ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ክወጽእ ዝገበሮ፡ ናይ መትከላትን ተገዳስነት ብዛዕባ ሶማልን ሶማልያዉያን ሕቶ ዘይኮነስ፡ ስግሩ ዘንቃዕረረ ሕቶ ሃገራዊ ረብሓን ናይ ዞናዊ ናይ ጸጥታ ስትራተጂ ምኻኑ እዉን ብተዳጋጋሚ ባዕሉ ዝእምቶ እዩ። እቲ ይኹን እዚ፡ ስርዓት ኣስመራ ካብ ብዛዕባ ኤርትራን ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ዝዛረቦ መዓልታዊ ብዛዕባ ሶማል ዝዛረቦ ይበዝሕ። እንታይ እዩ ዝብሃል ልዕሊ ጳጳስ ካቶሊክ ምኻን፡ልዕሊ ካቶሊክ ጻድቕ ምኻን ከምዝባሃል፡ ልዕሊ ሶማላዉያን ንሶማል ዝሓስብን ጉዳይ ሶማል ክዉስን ዝህቕን እዩ። ፕረሲደንት ኢሰያስ ኣብ ኩሉ ዘረብኡ ሶማል ሶማል ክብል ዝተዓዘቡ ሶማልያዉያን እዚ ፕረሲደንት ናይ ሶማል ድዩ ዋላስ ናይ ኤርትራ? ኢሎም ዝሓቱ ሶማልያዉያን ቡዙሓት እዮም። ኣንካይዶ ንሶማላዉያን ንህዝቢዓለም እዉን ደንጺዎ እዩ ዘሎ።

እቲ ብስርዓት ኣስመራ ክካየድ ዝጸንሔ ፖሎቲካዊ ቅመራን ጸወታን ኣብ ክሊ ጉጉይ ኒክለስ-ልዑላዉነት ክሕንበብ ስለዝጸንሔ፡ ናብዛ ሕጂ ተበጺሓ ዞላ ማዕቀብ ኣብጺሓቶ ኣላ። ኣይጭኩኑለይን እዮም፡ ሶማል ሶማል እንተበልኩ ኣነ ገባርን ሓዳግን ኣብ ሶማል መሲልዎም ክሓቕፉኒን ከቃባጡሩለይ እዮም። ኣብ ክሊ ጽምዶ ዲፕሎማስያዊ ዘተ ከእትዉኒ እዮም።…ወ.ዘ.ተ ዝሕሰብ እንተነይሩ ናይ ብሓቂ ዓቕምኻን ደረጃኻ ዘይምፍላጥን ካብ ኣመና ፍርሒ (phobia) ዝነቀለ ሃዉታቲ ሕልሚ እዩ።

 

ንማዕቀብ ምኹኑይ ንምግባር ባይቶ ጽጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዝተሞርከሰሉ “”ወግዓዊ”” ጸብጻብ  እንታይ ይብል?

ማዕቀብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሃገረ-ኤርትራ ክዉሰን እንኮሎ፡ ዛጊት ክሳብ ሕጂ ብወግዒ ኣብ መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ዘይተዘርግሑ፡ ብጥብቂ ሚስጢራዉነት ዝተሓዝኡ ስለያዊ ሓቤሬታት ናይ መንግስታት ኣመሪካ፡ ዓባይ ቢሪጣንያ፡ ኢትዮጵያ፡ ፈረንሳ…ወ.ዘ.ተ እኳ እንተሃለዉ። ካብቶም ባይቶ ጸጥታ ወግዓዊ መወከሲታቱ ዝተጥቕመሎምን ዝዘርጌሖምን ሰነዳትብ ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌን ሰደቃ ኪኢላታት ተባሂሉ ዝፍለጥ ናይ መጽናዕቲ ጉጅለ; ንምግሃስ ውሳኔ ባይቶ ጽጥታ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሶማሊያ ብዘሕለፎ ጸብጻባት ሙርኩስ ዝገበረ እዩ።

እዚ ጸብጻባት እዚ ኣስማት ሰባት ጽፍሕታቶም ብዝሖም፡ ዕለታትን ቦታን፡ ዓይነትን ብዝሕን ኣጽዋር፡ ዓይነትን ኣስማት መጋዓዓዚ ነገራት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ስለዝገልጽ፡ እቲ መግለጺ መርትዖታት ዘለዎ ዝመስልን ዘስምዕን እኳ እንተኾነ፡ ብናጻ ዝኾኑ ሰባት ወይ መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ኣብ ዝይተራጋገጸ እዋናት’ዩ ናይ ማዕቀብ ዉሳኔ ዝተወሰነ። ድሕሪ ዉሳኔ ማዕቀብ መንግስት ኤርትራ ንናይ ጋልፍ መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ንክዕዘቡን ማዕጽኡ ኣርሕዩ’ዩ። ቀጺሉ እዉን ንዝምድናታትን ፈነታትን ኣብ መንጎ መንግስት ኤርትራን መንግስት ኣመሪካን ጽዕዶታት መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ዝዝርግሖ ኣመልኪቱ ቅድሚ ሕጂ ተዛሪቡሉ ዘይፈልጥ ሕቶታት ኣልዒሉ መግለጺታት ሂቡሉ ኣሎ። ኩሉ ግን ድሕሪ ማይ ንባዓቲ እዩ።

ብናይ ጋልፍ-ኒዉስ (Gulf news) እኳ ገለገለ ንጹር ሓቤሬታታት እንተወጸ፡ ገና ብካልኦት ብናጻ ዝኾኑ ሰባት ወይ መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ከም መራጎዲን መሳብሒን ስለ ዘይተራጋገጸ ሓቂ ኣይኮነን ክትብሎ ወይ ድማ ብኣንጻሩ ሓቂ እዩ ኢልካ ክትሽምቶ ወይ ክትነጽጎ ኣዝዩ ኣጸጋሚ እኳ እንተኾነ። ንታሪኽን እንታይ ይባሃል ከምዝነበረን ዘሎን ምፍላጥ ግን ኣዝዩ ኣገዳሲ ስለዝኾነ ብጹሑፍ ክስነድ ኣገዳሲ እዩ።

እዚ ጽሑፋዊ ዝርዝራት’ዚ ካብቲ ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌን ሰደቃ ኪኢላታትተባሂሉ ዝፍለጥ ናይ መጽናዕቲ ጉጅለ; ንምግሃስ ውሳኔ ባይቶ ጽጥታ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሶማሊያ፡ ነቲ ብቁጽሪ 751/1992 ዝፍለጥ ውሳኔ ዝከታተል ብባይቶ ጸጥታ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዝተመዘዘ ናይ መጽናዕቲ ጉጅለ፡ ወግዓዊ ዝገበሮ ጭብጥታት ምትእትታው ኤርትራ ኣብ ሶማሊያ መሰረት ዝገበር

ባይቶ ጽጥታ፡ ነዚ ናብ ሃገረ-ኤርትራ ዘነጻጸር እገዳ ቅድሚ ምውሳኑ፡ ንምትእትታው ኤርትራ ኣብ ሶማሊያ ብዝምልከት ንስርዓት ህግደፍ ተደጋጋሚ መጠንቀቕታታትን ክሲን ክህብ ድሕሪ ምጽናሕ፡  ስርዓት ህግደፍ ግን ካብ ተግባራቱን ዝሓትዎን ክቑጠብ ስለ ዘይከኣለ፡ ነቲ 23 ታሕሳስ 2009 1907 ዝፍለጥ፡ ናብ መራሕቲ ስርዓት ህግደፍን ገለ መጋበሪያታት ናይ ስርዓት ዝኾኑ ውልቀሰባትን ዝዓለም ማዕቀብ ክውስን ተገዲዱ። ኣብዚ ክንግንዘቦ ዝግባኣና፡ እዚ ካብ 2002 ጀሚሩ ንስርዓት ህግደፍ ክንገሮ ዝጽንሐ መጠንቀቕታን ክስን ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ፡ ብመራኸቢ ብዙሓን ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ይኹን ብካልእ ወግዓዊ መንገዲ ኣብ ወቕቱ ኣይተሓቦሮን። ሕጂ እዉን ብንጹር ዝተቃልሔን ዝተገልጸን ኣይኮነን።

ብመሰረት ናይ ብዉሳኔ ብS/2008/274 ዝፍለጥ 24 ሚያዝያ 2008 በቲ ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌ ዝፍለጥ ብባይቶ ጸጥታ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራትዝቆመ ዝቐረበ መጽናዕታዊ ጸብጻብ፡ ንምግሃስ ውሳኔ ቁጽሪ 751/1992 ናይ ሶማሊያ ዝከታተል ሰደቃ ክኢላታ ኤርትራ፡ 9M39 መለለይ 03-95 ቁጽሪ 03268 ዝፍለጥ ስራሓት ራሻ ዝኾነ ሚሳይል፡ 1995 ኣብ ራሻ ተሰሪሑ፡ ኣብ ተመሳሳሊ ዓመተ-ምህረት ማለት ኣብ 1995 ናብ ኤርትራ ተሸይጡ።እዚ ስርሓት ራሻ ዝኾነ ሚሳይልን፡ ካልኦት ብርክት ዝበሉ ዝተፈላለዩ መላለይ ቁጽሮም ብሕብሪ(ቦያ) ዝተለኸዩ ኣጽዋራትን ካብ ኤርትራ ናብቶም ብኣልሸባብ ዝፍለጡ ጥሩፋት ጉጅለ ምስተላእከ፡ ኣብ ሶማሊያ ተታሒዙ። ኣብቲ ግዜቲ ዋንነት ናይዞም ኣጽዋራት ንምጽራይ፡ ብኣቦወንበር ናይቲ ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌዝፍለጥ ናይ መጽናዕቲ ጉጅለ፡ ናብ መንግስቲ ራሻ ደብዳቤ ተላኢኹ። ብመሰረት ናይቲ ዝተላእከ ደብዳቤ፡ ናይ ራሻ ቀዋሚ ኣምባሳደር ኣብ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዝኾነ ኣምባሳደር  ኮንስታንቲን ዶልጎቭ፡ እዚ ተጠቒሱ ዘሎ 9M39 ዝበሃል ሚሳይል ኣብ ሃገሩ ማለት ኣብ ራሻ 1995 ተሰሪሑ ኣብተመሳሳሊ ዓመት ናብ ኤርትራ ከምዝተሸጠ ጠቒሱ፡ ኤርትራ ዝኾነ ካብ ራሻ ዝገዛኣቶ ኣጽዋር ይኹን ተተኮስቲ፡ ናብ ካልእ ሃገር ከተማሓላልፍ ይኹን ክትሸይጥ፡ ሕጋዊ መሰል ከምዘይብላ፡ ኣብቲ ናብ ኣዋሃህድቲ ናይ ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌዝኾነ ሚስተር ቡሩኖ ሺምስካይ ሰክሪታሪ ዝኾነት ሚስ ሎርይን ሪካርድ ማርቲን ዝተጻሕፈ ደብዳቤ ይጠቅስ። ኣስዒቡውን ነቶም ብሕብሪ (ቦያ) መንነት ቁጽሮም ከይፍለጥ ዝተለኸዩ ኣጽዋራትውን ብኺኢላታት ዋንነቶም ክፍለጥ ከምዝከኣል ናይ ምትሕብባር ድሌቱ ይገልጽ

ነዚ ኣብላዕሊ ዝቐረበ ክሲ፡ ብተመሳሳሊ መንገዲ ንምጽራይ ዝኣክል ናብ መንግስቲ ኤርትራ  ከምዝትለእከውን፡  ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌ ኣብ ጸብጻቡ ጥቒስዎ ኣሎ።ቀዋሚ ኣምባሳደር ኤርትራ ኣብ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት፡ ዝኾነ ኣምባሳደር ኣርኣያ ደስታ፡  ብድፍኑ ኤርትራ ኣይዋዓለቶን ክብለ ምስ ዉዱዕ ሓቕታት ብዘይቃዶ መልክዕ ኣሉታ ሂቡሉ።

ኣብ ካልእ ገጻት ናይ ብS/2006/913 ናይ መጽናዕታው ጸብጻብ፡ ዕለት 26 ሓምለ 2006 ኣብ መንጎ ብእስላማዊ መጋባእያ ሓድነት (ICU) ዝፍለጥ ሸኽ ሓሰን መሓመድ ዳሂር ኣወይስ ዝምራሕ ውድብን፡ ወታሃደራዊ ክኢላታት ኤርትራን ግብጽን ሊብያን፡ ኣብ መንበሪ ገዛ ናይ ፋይናንስ ሓላፊ ዝኾን ዓብዱልቃድር ኣቡካር ዑመር ኣዳኒ፡ ዋዕላ ተኻይዱ። ብመሰረት ውጽኢት ናይ ዋዕላ፡ 3,800 ወተሃደራት ክስልጥኑ ክውሰን ከሎ፡ ኤርትራን ግብጽን ወታሃደራዊ ስልጥናታት ዝህቡ ክኢላታ ክሰዳ ክሰማማዓ ከለዋ፡ ሊብያ ኻኣ ነቲ ስልጠና ዝኸውን ፊናንሲያዊ ሓገዛት ክትልግስ መብጻዓ ኣትያ።ነዚ ስምማዓት መሰረት ብምግባር፡ ዕለት 23 ነሓሰ 2006 እስላማዊ መጋባእያ ሓድነት (ICU) 600 ሓደስቲ ተዓለምቲ ብምምልማል ኣብ ሕልወይን ምስኣከቦም፡ ዕለት 19 መስከረም 2006፡ ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌ  ምትእትታው ናይ ግብጺ ንምጽራይ ናብ ናይ ግብጺ ሰበስልጣን ወግዓዊ ደብዳቤ ክልእኽ እንከሎ፡ ግብጺ ሽዑ ንሽዑ ንናይ ኣብ ሶማሊያ ህላዊነታ ኣሉታ ክትህበሉ እንኸላ፡ ኤርትራ ግን 28 ዝተፈላለዩ ወታሃደራዊ ተተኮስቲ ሓገዛትስን፡ ወታሃደራትን ልኢኻ።

ብኻልእ ወገን፡ ኣብ ተመሳሳሊ ዓመት፡ ዕለት 26 ሚያዝያ 2006 ሓንቲ ካብ ኤርትራ ዝተበገሰት ዝተፈላለዩ ኣጽዋራት ከም AK-47, PKM (ብልምዲ ብሬን PK ተባሂሉ ዝጽዋዕ) ኣውተማቲክ ብረትን   RPG-7 ካልእ ብርክት ዝበሉ ተተኮስት ጽዒና ኣብ ወደብ ዕልማ እስላማዊ መጋባእያ ሓድነት (ICU) ዝበሃል ውድብ ኣራጊፋ ተመሊሳ።ብዕለት 26 ግንቦት 2006 ሓንቲ ወተሃደራዊ ነፋሪት ናይ ኤርትራ፡ ዝተፈላለዩ ኣጽዋራትን ጸረነፈርትን  ጽዒና ከባቢ ሰዓት ሓሙሽተ ኣቢሉ ይኸውን፡ ኣብ ድዕሳማሪብ ዝበሃ ኣብ ከባቢ ጋልጋዱድ ዓሊባ። ነታ ነፋሪት ዝጽበዩ ዝነበሩ 75 ሰባትን ናይ ኦሮሞ ሓርነታዊ ግንባር OLF ተጋደልትን ካብ ፓኪስታን ዝመጹ ካልኦትን ነቲ ካብ ነፋሪት ዝተራገፍ ጸረ-ነፈርቲን ነቲ 9 ጉንበት 2006 ኣብ ኤል ሕመድ ዝተራገፈ ካልእ ኣጽዋራትን ካብ ካባቢ ብምእላይ ናብ ራስኪያምቦኒ ዝበሃል መራሒ ምልሻ ሸኽ ሓሰን ዓብዱል ሕርሲ ዝርከበሉ ቦታ ግዒዙ።ድሒሩውን ብዕለት 15 ሰነ 2006 4 ናይ ኤርትራ ወታሃደራዊ ነፈሪቲ ኣብ ተመሳሳሊ ቦታ ብምዕራፍ ጽዕነተን ምሰራገፋ፡ ኣደን ፋሺ ፋራሕ ዝተባሃለ ሳጋኢሮውዝፍለጥ መራሒ ናይ ሕዝበል ሸባብ  (ምንቅስቓስ መንእሰያት) ተረኪብዎ።

ብዕለት 19 ሰነ 2006 ሓንቲ ስማ ዘይተነጸረ መርከብ ካብ ዓሰብ ብምብጋስ፡ 24 M72 ዝበሃል ፈኮስቲ ጸረ ታንኪሚሳይልን፡ 1,200 ጸረ ታንኪ ፈንጂታትን፡ 4,000 F1 ናይ ኢድ ቡምባታትን፡ ተተኮስቲ ጠያይት ናይ ፈኮስቲ ብረታትን፡ 2,000 ወታሃደራዊ ክዳዉንትን ካልእ 1,500 ወታሃደራዊ ናይ ማይ ብራሾን ዘጠቓለለ ኣብ ወደብ ኤል ዓደ ዝበሃል ኣብ ከባቢ መቓድሾ ዝርከብ ወደብ ኣራጊፉ። ካልእ 30 ሰነ 2006 ሰላም ዝተባህለት ናይ ኤርትራ መርከብ ካብ ወደብ ምጽዋዕ ብምብጋስ፡ 2,000 ቶን መግብን፡ 50 DSHK ጸረነፋሪትን፡ 50 ሞርታራት ናይ 82 ሚሊሜተር፡ 3,000 AK-47(ካላሽን ኮቭ)ን፡ ካልእ 1000 ተተኮስቲ ዝሓዙ ባኮታትን፡  ኣብ ተመሳሳሊ ወደብ ኣራጊፋ። ዕለት 4 ሓምለ 2006 ወታሃደራዊ ነፈርቲ ኤርትራ  ናብ ዒሳለይ ዝበሃል ኣብ ሰሜናዊ ምዕራብ መቓድሾ ዝርከብ መዕርፎ ነፈርቲ 4 ተኸታተልቲ በረራታ ጌረን።ካብዚ እቲ ክልተ በረራታ ነቲ እስላማዊ መጋባእያ ሓድነት  (ICU) ዝበሃል ውድብ ዝኸውን ኣጽዋራት ክራግፍ ከሎ፡ እቲ ክልተ በረራታት ከኣ 500 ወተሃደራ ኤርትራን ተጋደልቲ ናይ ኦጋዴንን OLF ኣመላሊሰን ይብል።

እቶም ኣብ መዓርፎ ነፈርቲ ዒሳለይ ዝተራገፉ ዕጥቋት ወትሃደራት፡ ብኡ ንብኡ ናብ ወደብ ዒል ማን ምስገዓዙ፡ ምስቲ ኣብ ዒል ማን ዝርከብ ጽንፋዉያን ኣክራሪ ምልሻን ነጋዳይን ዝኾነ ኣቡበከር ዓማር ኣዳኒ ድሕሪ ምርኻቦም፡ ዳግመ ስርርዕ ብምግባር፡ ናብ ከባቢ ማርካ (ታሕተዋይ ክፋል ናይ ሻበሌ) ብጃልባ ተጓዒዞም።እዚ ታሕተዋይ ክፋል ናይ ሻበሌ። ኣብ መንጎ ወደብን መዓርፎ ነፈርቲ ኤል ኣሕመድን ዝተደኮን ኮይኑ፡ ምኽንያት ምጉዓዝ ናይቶም ወታሃደራትን ዕጡቓትን ከኣ፡ ልክዕ ከምቲ ኣብ መቓድሾ ዝርከብ ማእከላይ ቤትጽሕፈት (headquarter) ምኽፋትን፡ ሓዱሽ ወታሃደራዊ መነሃሪያን ንወጻእተኛታት መስልጠኒ ዝከውን መዓስከር ንምኽፋት ተባሂሉ ብሜላ ዝተሃንደሰ ቦታዩ።ኣብቲ እዋን ብዕለት 15 ሓምለ 2006 ኮለኔል ዩሱፍ ነጋሽ ወርቀ ኤርትራዊ ወታሃደራዊ መራሒ፡ ብፍልይቲ ነፋሪት ኣብ መቓድሾ ወሪዱ። እዚ ቋንቋ ሶማል ክዛረብ ዝኽእል ወታሃደራዊ መራሒ፡ ምስ መራሕቲ ናይእስላማዊ መጋባእያ ሓድነት  ፈጸምቲ ኣካላትን ምስ ኣማኸርቲ ናይቲ መጅሊስ ኣል ሹራ ዝባሃል ውድብን ኣኼባ ድሕሪ ምግባሩ፡ ኣብቲ ዝቕጽል መዓልቲ፡ ማለት ብዕለት 16 ሓምለ ብቶዮታ ፒክኣፕ በኣርባዕተ ኪኢላታት ሓለዋ ንፍሲተሰንዩ ናብ ማሪር ጉር ዝተባህለ ቦታ፡ ምስ ሸኽ ሓስሰን መሓመድ ዳህር ኣወይስ ኣኼባ ክገብር ነቂሉ።

ብዕለት 17 ሓምለ 2006 MV ዮሃና ዝተባህለት መርከብ፡ ካብ ኤርትራ ናብ ሶማሊያ ብምጓዓዝ፡ 3,000 ቶን መግብን 50 DSHK ጸረነፋሪትን 30 ሞርታራት ናይ 82 ሚሊ ሜተርን 2,000 AK-47 ካልእ 100RPG-7 ኣራጊፋ። እዚ ጉዕዞ ናይ MV ዮሃና ናብ ሶማሊያ፡ ነቲ ናይ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ኮሚቴ ክኢላት ኣብ ሶማሊያ ነቲ ኣቐዲሙ ዝጸነሖም ኤርትራ  ንወታሃደራት ናይ ኦሮሞ ሓርነታዊ ግንባር ( OLF ) ተሕግዝን ተጓዓዕዝን ኣላ ዝብል ኣብ S/2003/223  ዝቐረብ ጸብጻብን፡ ነቲ ኤርትራ እትገብሮ ዘላ ምጥሓስ ሕግን ምትእትታው ኣብ ሶማሊያን ከም ተወሳኺ መርትዖ ክኾኖም ከም ጥብቆ ክኢሉዩ።

ኣብቲ ዝሓለፈ ዝተተርጎመ ጽሑፍ ናይቲ ናይ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌን ዝፍለጥ ብውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዝተመዘዘ ንምግሃስ ነቲ 751 /1992 ዝፍለጥ ወታሃደራዊ ናይ ኣጽዋር ማዕቀብ (Arms Embargo)  ኣብ ሶማሊያ፡ ዝከታተል ናይ መጽናዕቲ ጉጅለ ዝወጸ ጸብጻብ፡ ኮለኔል ዩሱፍ ነጋሽ ወርቀ፡ ብፍልይቲ ነፋሪ ኣብ መቓድሾ ከምዝወረደን፡ ምስ ዝተፈላለዩ ኣኽረርቲ ጥሩፋት እስላማዊ ጉጅለታት ኣኼባታት ድሕሪ ምግባሩ፡ ብተዮታ ፒክ ኣፕ ብኣርባዕተ ኪኢላታት ሓለዋ ንፍሲተሰንዩ  ናብ ማሪር ጉር ዝተባህለ ቦታ፡ ምስ ሸኽ ሓስሰን መሓመድ ዳህር ኣወይስ ኣኼባ ክገብር ከምዝተበገሰ ርኢና ኔርና።

ኣብቲ 4 ጥቅምቲ 2005 S/2005/625 ዝፍለጥ ብሞኒተሪንግሩፕ ዝቐረብ ጸብጻብ፡ ንምትእትታው ናይ ኤርትራ ዝምልከት ምጽራያቱ (investigation) ስለዘየጻፈፈ፡ካል ሃገር ኣብቲ ዞባብዝብል ሓረግ ነቲ 751 /1992 ዝፍለጥ  ናይ ኣጽዋር ማዕቀብ(Arms Embargo)  ኣብ ሶማሊያ ትግህስ ሃገር ኣላ ክብል ጸብጺቡ ነይሩዩ። ድሒሪኡኡ ግን፡ ኤርትራ ንእትገብሮ ተደጋጋሚ ግህሰታት፡ ብመርትዖታት ዝተሰነዩ ዝርዝራዊ ጭብጥታት ብዝብሎ ይገልጽ።

እዚ ሸኽ ሐሰን ዳሂር ኣወይስ ናይሽዑ መራሒ ናይቲ ኣል ኢቲሓድ ብዝብል ስም ዝጽዋዕ ዝነበረ ውድብ፡ እስላማዊ ማባባእያ ሓድነት(ሸሪዓ) ዝመስረተሉን፡ ምስ ላዕለዎት መራሕቲ ናይ ኦሮሞ ሓርነታዊ ግንባር (OLF)  ኦሮሞ ሃገራዊ ሓርነታዊ ግንባር (ONLF) ቀጻሊ ርክባት ዝገብረሉ ዝነበረ እዋን፡ ኤርትራ፡ ካብ መጀመሪያ ዋርሒ ለካቲት ጀሚራ ስጋብ ወርሒ ጉምበት 2005 ኣብ ሸሞንት ኣጋጣሚታ፡ ሸኽ ሓሰን ዳሂር ኣወይስ ዝተፈላለዩ ወታሃደራዊ ሓገዛት ለጊሳ። ኣብ ተመሳሳሊ እዋን፡ ኣንጻር ኢትዮጵያ ክምክቱ ብዝዓለም ውዲት፡ ከም ሸኽ ዩሱፍ ኢንዶሓደ ዝበሃል ኣመሓዳሪ (Governor) ናይ ታሕታዋይ ሻበሌ ዝመሰሉ ጥሩፋን ኦሮሞ ሃገራዊ ሓርነታዊ ግንባር (ONLF) ዝተፈላለዩ ወታሃደራዊ ኣጽዋራት ተዐጥቕ ከምዝነበረት እቲ ጸብጻብ ይጠቅስ።ኣብ ወርሒ ሚያዝያ 2005  270 ዝሰልጠኑ ወታሃደራት ናይ ኦሮሞ ሃገራዊ ሓርነታዊ ግንባር (ONLF) መበጊሲኦም ካብዘይተፈልጠት ሃገር፡ ብሰለስተ ተኸታታሊ በረራታ ኣብ ድሑሳማሪብ ከምዝተራገፉን ምስ መራሒ ኣል ኢቲሓድ ዝኾነ ሽኽ ሓሰን ዳሂር ኣወይስ  ከምዝተራኸቡ እቲ ጸብጻብ ይገልጽ።

ብዕለት 14 ሕዳር 2005 ሸኽ ዩሱፍ ኢንዶሓደ፡ ቀጥታዊ በረራ ካብ ስዑድያ ናብ ኣስመራ ብምግባር፡ ካብ ሰበስልጣናት ኤርትራ፡ ንኣል ኢታሓድ፡ ዘየወላው ናይ ወታሃደራዊ ሓገዛት ከምዝግበረሉ መብጸዓ ምስተኣተወሉ፡ ብዕለት 21 ሕዳር ናብ መቓድሾ ጉዕዝኡ ቀጺሉ።ኣብ ተመሳሳሊ ወርሒ ማለት ብዕለት 14 ሕዳር 2005 ሚኒስትሪ ወጻኢ ጉዳያት ኤርትራ፡ ወከልቲ ዝኾንዎ ጉጅለ ነጋዶ ናብ መቓድሾ ልኢኹ።እታ ጉጅለ ነጋዶ፡ ምስ ዝተፈላለዩ እስላማዊ ጥሩፋት ብምርኻብ፡ ዝደለይዎ ሓገዝ ክሓቱን ክልገሰሎም ምዃኑን ቃል ብምእታው፡ ብምሉእ ዓቒሞም፡ ኣንጻር ናይ ኢትዮጵያ ኣጀንዳ ክዕጠቑን ከፍሽሉን ለበዋታት የሕሊፋ።

ኣብ መቓድሾ ወኪል ናይ ኤርትራ ዝኾነ ኢልያስ ሓይተ፡ ምንቅስቓሳቱ ኣብ መቓድሾ ውሱን ስለዝነበረ፡ ብመንገዲ ነበርቲ ናይ ከባቢ ዝኾኑ ጥሩፋት ተሓጊዙ፡ ምስቶም ኣብ ባናዲርን ታሕተዋይ ክፋል ሻበሌን ዝነብሩ ዝነበሩ ኣንጻር መግስቲ ኢትዮጵያ ዝኾኑ ናይ ኢትዮጵያ ብሄራት ጽዑቕ ርክባት የካይድ ነይሩ። ኣብቲ ናይ ዕግርግር ሁመት፡ ኣርባዕተ ዝተፈላለዩ ሜላታት ብምጥቃም ዝተፈላለዩ ኣጽዋራትን ተተኮስትን ካልእ ብርክት ዝበሉ ወታሃደራዊ ሓገዛት ናብ ናይ ሶማሊያ ጥሩፋት ኣኽረርቲ ጉጅለታት ተሰጋጊሩ።

ብዕለት 3 መጋቢት 2006 ሓንቲ ሰሌዳ ቁጽሪ E-B69 እትፍለጥ መንገዲ ኣየር፡ ካብ ኣስመራ ናብ ባለዶግለ ዝበሃል መዓርፎ ነፈርቲ ቀጥታዊ በረራ ብምግባር፡ 200 ዕሹጋት ባኮታት ተተኮስቲ ናይ Zu-23 ጸረነፋሪት፡ 200 ዕሹጋት ባኮታት ተተኮስቲ ቦምባታት ናይ B-10 ጸረታንኪ ሚሳይልን፡ 200 ዕሹጋት ባኮታት ተተኮስቲ ናይ DSHK ጸረነፋሪትን፡ 200 ዕሹጋት ባኮታት ተተኮስቲ ናይ Browning M2.5 ከቢድ ብረትን፡ ተተኮስቲ ናይ ZP-39 ጸረነፋሪትን፡ 50 RPG ዕሹጋት ተተኮስቲ ጠያይትን፡ 50 ፈኮስቲ ጸረታንኪ ሚስይላትን 50 M-79 ወንጨፍቲ ሮኬታትን። ካልእ ወታሃደራዊ መራኸቢ ረድዮታትን፡ ኣራጊፋ። እቲ ዝተራገፈ ኣጽዋራት ከኣ፡ ብመንገዲ ኢልያስ ሓይተ ኣቢሉ፡ ናብ ወታሃደራዊ ኣዛዚ ናይቶም ጥሩፋት ጉጅለታት ዝኾነ ዓብዲሳላን ዓሊ ኢብራሂም ተረኪቡ።

ብዕለት 5 መጋቢ 2006 ሓንቲ ተመሳሳሊ መንገዲ ኣየር ካብ ኤርትራ ብምብጋስ፡ 1,000 AK-47 (ካላሽን ኮቭን) 1.000 ወታሃደራዊ ክሻፋታትን 1,000 ብቁጽጽር ማዕዶ ዝትኮስ ቦምባታት፡ 1,000 ጸረሰብ ፈንጅታትን፡ ካልእ ተተኮስቲ ቡምባታት ናይ ሞርታር 120 ሚሊ መተርን ኣራጊፋ። ዕለት 7 ዕለት 14 ሚያዝያ 2006 ካብ ኤርትራ ብምብጋስ፡ ዝተፈላለዩ ተተኮስቲ፡ ኣብ ኢልማን ዝበሃል ኣብ ከባቢ መቓድሾ ዝርከብ ወደብ ምስተራገፈ፡ ብተመሳሳሊ መንገዲ ነቶም ኣብቲኸባቢ ዝርከቡ ኣኽረርቲ ጉጅለታት ተዋሂቡ።

ነዚ መሰረት ብምግባር፡ ምቁጽጻር ሽማግሌ ብዕለት 27 መጋቢት 2006 ዘለዎም ሻቕሎትን ስክፍታን ብምግላጽ፡ ደብዳቤ ናብ መንጊቲ ኤርትራ ልኢኾም። ይኹንምበር፡ መንግስቲ ኤርትራ ፡ብመንገዲ ቀዋሚ ኣምባሳደሩ ዝኾነ ኣምባሳደር ኣራኣያ ደስታ ጌሩ፡ ነንቲ ቁጽሪ መዝገብ S/AC.29/2006/MG/OC.18 ዝቐረበ ክሲ፡ ዘሐፍር ናይ ጠቐነ ፈጠራ ብምባል፡ነቲ ክሲ፡ዲፕሎማሲያዊ ብቅዓቱ ዘይሓለወ ኣሉታዊ መልሲ ሂብሉ። ነዚ ኣቀዲሙ ዝተጣሕመሰ ትሕዞን ምንጭታቱን ንምዉካስ ኣብ ዝድለየሉ እዋናት እንሆ

ብመሰረት ናይቲ መጽናዕታዊ ጸብጻብ፡ ኤርትራ ኣብ ሶማሊያ ንእትገብሮ ምትእትታውን ምግሃስ ን፡ እንዳተጋህደ ኣብዝመጸሉ እዋን፡ ኤርትራ፡ ኮነ ኢላ ንእትገብሮ ምጥሓስ ሕጊ ንኽትሽፍን ንማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ብተደጋጋሚ ከተደናግርን ጉጉይ ሓበሬታ ኣብምሃብን፡ ተደጋጋሚ ፈተነታት ከምዝገበረት ይጠቅስ።

ገለ ኤርትራ ካብዝገበረቶ ምጥሓስን ኣተጋባብራ ናይ በረራ ሜላታት ኣብ ሶማሊያ፡ ከምዚ ዝስዕብ ተሰኒዱ ይርከብ።

1. ዝተፈላለዩ ናይ ንግዲ ማእከላት ፈጢራ። ዕላማ ናይዘን ናይ ንግዲ ማእከላት ከኣ፡ ኤርትራ ንእትገብሮ ዘይ ሕጋዊ ንጥፈታት ኣብ ሶማሊያ ይሽፍናን ምስጢር ከይወጽእ ይከታተላን።

2. ኤርትራ ንእትገብሮ ናይ ኣየር በረራታት ናብ ሶማሊያ፡ ዝተፈላለያ ንጡፋትን ሕጋውያንን ተጠቒማ።

3. ኤርትራ ናይ ሓሶት ሰነድ ብምስናዕ: ዘይሕጋዊ ናይ በረራ መዝገብ ብምፍጣር፡  ሳልሳይ ሃገር በረራ ከምዝገበረት ኣምሲላ ናይደናገሪ ናይ ተበገስ ልክት ጌራ።

ኣብ S/2006/913 ዝፍለጥ መጽናዕታዊ ጸብጻብ፡ ሓንቲ   IL-76 እትፍለጥ ናይ ጽዕነት ነፍሪት (cargo plane) ወታሃደራዊ ኣጽዋራትን ዕጡቓትን ካብ ኤርትራ ናብ ሶማሊያ ከምዘመላለሰት፡ ኣብ ካብ 43-53 ኣብ ዘሎ ፓራግራፍ ይጠቅስ። ኣብቲ እዋን ሞኒተሪንግጉፕ፡ ቅዳሕ ናይ ክራይ፡ ናይ ውዑል ስምምዕ ናይ IL-76 እትፍለጥ መንገዲ ኣየር፡ ካብ ኤሪኮ ኢንተርፕራዝ ካብ ኣስመራ፡ ብሓደ ስሙ ክጥቀስ ዘይተደለየ ብቐረባ ነቲ ናይ ዉዑል ሕሳባት ኣፍልጦ ዘለዎ ሰብ፡ ነዚ ኣብላዕሊ ዝተጥቐሰ ሓበሬታ ክረክብ ክኢሉ።እቲ ኤሪኮ ዝበሃል ካምፓኒ፡ ቤት ጽሕፈቱ ኣብ ኣስመራ ኮይኑ፡ ብመንግስቲ ኤርትራ ከምዝመሓደርን፡ ክልተ ሚኢቲ ሽሕ ናይ ኣሜሪካ ዶልላር($ 200,000) ዕርቡን ብመንገዲ ናይ ኤርትራ ዲፕሎማት ኣብ ሃገራት ወሽመጥ ከምዝተኸፈለውን ሓቢሩ።

ኣብ ተመሳሳሊ እዋን ማለት ኣብ ወርሕ ሕዳርን ታሕሳስን 2006 ሓንቲ ቦይንግ 707 ብኤሮጀን ኣቬሽን ብጋና እትውነን ኮይና፡ ብናይ በረራ መዝገብ 9G-OAL ካብ መዕርፎ ነፈርቲ ኣስመራን ዓሰብን ተደጋጋሚ በረራታ ናብ መቓድሾ ብምግባር፡ ዝተፈላለዩ ወታሃደራዊ ሓገዛት ናብቶም ICU ዝፍለጡ እስላማዊ ጥሩፋ ኣመላሊሳ። ብኻልእ ወገን፡ ሓደ ካብ ኣስመራ ዝብገስ ዝነበረ መራሒ ነፋሪት፡ ዝተፈላለዩ  ናይ መደናገሪ ናይ ተበገስ ምልክት ብምግባር፡ ናብ ኡጋንዳን ሞዛምቢክን ከምዝበርር ብምምሳል ኣብ ውሽጢ 25 መዓልታት፡ 13 በረራታት ናብ መቓድሾ ከምዝገበረ ሓቢሩ።

በዚ መሰረት ናይ ምቕጽጻር-ሽማግሌ፡ ካብ ኢንተርናሽናል ሲቪል ኣቬሽን ምልክትናይ መደናገሪ በረራ” ካብ ኤርትራ ከምዝተገበረ ዘመልክት ሓበሬታ ምስረኽበ፡ ብዕለት 15 መጋቢት 2007 እዛ ኣቐዲማ ዝተጥቕሰት መንገዲ ኣየር፡ ኣብ ሞዛምቢክ ምእታዋን ዘይምእታዋን ንምጽራይ፡ ናብ መንግስታት ኡጋንዳን ሞዛምቢክን ደብዳቤ ልኢኹ። ነዚ መሰረት ብምግባር፡ ቀዋሚ ኣምባሳደር ናይ ሞዛምቢክ ኣብ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት፡ እታ ትባሃል ዘላ ነፋሪት ኣብቲ ዝተጠቕሰ እዋናት ኣብ ግዝኣት ሞዛምቢክ ከምዝኣተወት ዝሕብር ሰነድ ኣብ ሃገሩ ከምዘየለ ኣረጋጊጹ።

ነዚ ኣብላዕሊ ተጠቒሱ ዘሎ ፍጻሜታ ንምጽራይ ዝኣክል፡ እቲ ናይ መጽናዕቲ ጉጅለ፡ ኣብ ወርሒ መጋቢ 2007 ተመሳሳሊ ደብዳቤ ናብ መንግስቲ ኤርትራ ልኢኹ።መንግስቲ ኤርትራ ካኣ ብመንገዲ ቀዋሚ ኣምባሳደሩ ኣብ ውድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ጌሩ፡ እዚ ዝስዕብ መልሲ ሂቡሉ።እዚ ቀጻልን ኮነ ኢልካ ዝግበር ናይ ጸለመ ጎስጓሳት ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ፡ ነቲ ዘይ ሕጋዊን፡ ሓደገኛ ዘይምርግጋእ ዝፈጥር ዘሎ መትእትታው ናይ ኢትዮጵያን  ደገፍታን ናብ ሶማሊያን፡ ዝፍጽምዎ ዘለዉ ገበናት ክሽፍነለን ኣይክእልንዩ ድሕሪ ምባል፡ እታ ዝተባህለት መንገዲ ኣየር፡ ናብተን ዝተጥቕሳ ሃገራት በረራ ፈጺማያ ብምባል፡ ንምቁጽጻር-ሽማግሌ ካኣ ናይ ጠቐነ ጉጅለ ብምባል ዘሊፍዎ።

ብተማዕዳዊ መንጸር ናይዚ ኣብላዕሊ ዝተጠቕሱ ምዕባለታት፡ ኣብ ወርሒ ጥቅምቲ ናይ 2007 ብወከልቲ ኣርባዕተ ውድባት ወይ ጉጂለታት ዝተጋበአ ጉባኤ ኣብ ኣስመራ ተኻይዱ። እቶም ኣርባዕተ ጉጂሌታት፡ ካብ እስላማዊ ሕብረት መጋባእያ (ICU) ዝመጹን፡ ኣቐዲሞ ኣባልት ፓርላማ ዘነበሩን፡ ገለ ናይ ፖለቲካ ጽልዋ ዘለዎም ባእታታትን፡ ወከልቲ ናይ ኣብ ስደት ዝነብሩ ሶማላውያንን ኢዮም ነይሮም። ዕላማ ናይዚ ብመንግስቲ ኤርትራ ዝተማእከለ ጉባኤ ካኣ ሓደ ጥሩፍ ሓይሊ ንምፍጣር እዩ ዝነበረ። ከም ውጽኢት ናይ ጉባኤ ኻኣ፡ ኪዳን ንዳግም ምሕራር ሶማሊያ (ARS) ኣብ ኣስመራ ተመስሪቱ። ካብዘን ኣርባዕተ ባእታታት፡ ICU ዝለዓለ ወታሃደራዊ ጸብለልታ ኣብ ሶማሊያ ከምዝነበሮ ይጠቅስ። ኣቃዉማን ስርርዕ ናይ መሪሕነት ዝምልከት ኣብ S/2008/769 ኣብ ገጽ 17 ክትምልከቱ ይከኣል።

ኤርትራ ኣብልዕሊ ብጀላቡን ነፈርትን ዝገበረቶ ምስግጋር ዝተፈላለዩ ወታሃደራዊ ኣጽዋራት ናብ ሶማሊያ፡ ኣብ ዓመተ 2007 ካብ ክልተ ሚኢቲ ሽሕ ስጋብ ሓሙሽተ ሚኢቲ ሽሕ ዶላር ኣሜሪካ፡ ARS ማለት ንውድብ ኪዳን ንዳግም ምሕራር ሶማሊያ ሐጊዛ። ኣብ ሓደ ኣጋጣሚውን እቲ ኢንድሓኣደዝፍለጥ ሓላፊ ወታሃደራዊ ምክልኻል ዝኾነ ዩሱፍ መሓመድ ሲያድ፡ ብጥርኑፍ ኣብሓደ ክፍሊት ሓደ ሚሊዮን ናይ ኣመሪካ ዶላር ተቐቢሉ። እዚ ኣሃዝ እዚ፡ ምስ ኣብ ናይሮቢ ኬንያ ዝመደበሩ ናይጸታ ጉጅለ (intelligence group) ምስቲ ዝነበሮ፡ ኤርትራ ሓደ ነጥቢ ሽዱሽተ ሚሊዮን ዶላር ንዕጡቓት ሶማላውያን፡ ኬንያ ከም መሰጋገሪ መንገዲ ተጠቒማ ሓጊዛ ዝብል ጸብጻብ ዝሰማማዕ ነበረ።

ምቁጽጻር-ሽማግሌ ኣብመደምደምታ ናይ መጽናዕቱ፡ኤርትራ ዋላኳ ንናይ ሕጊ ምጥሓስ ተግባራታ ትኽሓዶ እምበር፡ እቲ ትገብሮ ዘላ ምግሃሳት፡ ኮነ ኢልካ ብዓበይቲ ሰበስልጣን መንግስትን መራሕቲ ህግደፍን ኣፍልጦ ዝግበር ዘይሕጋዊ ተግባራትክብል ኣብ ጸብጻቡ ጠቒሱ ሓደ ካብቶም ዘይሕጋዊ ፊናንሲያውን ወታሃደራውን ምስግጋራት ዘካይድ ዝነበረ ላዕለዋይ መራሒ ናይ መንግስቲ ኤርትራ፡ ኮሎኔል ጣዓመ ጎይቶኦም ከምዝነበረ ብምትቃስ ካልኦት ሓሙሽተ ላዕለዎት ሰበስልጣን ናይ መንግስቲ ኤርትራውን ኣብ መጽናዕቲ ከምዝነበሩ ይጠቅስ።

እዚ ዝተገበረ ገንዘባዊ ሓገዛት፡ ገሊኡ ብቐታ ካብ ናይ ኤርትራ ኤምባሲታት ቁጽሪ መዝገብ ሕሳብ ክኸውን ከሎ፡ ገሊኡ ኻኣ ብሓለፍቲ ናይ ጸታ ካብ ኣስመራ ናብቶም ጥሩፋት ጉጅለታት ይላኣኽ  ነይሩ። ገሊኡ ኻኣ ብመንገዲ ግሩሃት ነጋዶ፡ ብመልክዕ መግብን ናይ ኤልክትሮኒክስ መሳሪሒታት ትገዚኡ ናብ ሶማሊያ ይላኣኽሞ፡ ተሸይ ናብቶም ዕጡቓት ጉጅለታት ይወሃብ ነይሩ። ተደናገጽቲ ናይቶም ዕጡቓት ጉጅለታት ዝኾና  ገለ  ሃገራት ኣዕራብውን፡ ሓገዛተን ንኤርትራ ብምሃብ፡ ኤርትራ ኻኣ ብኽፋል ወይ ብምሉእ ነቲ ዝተለገሰ ሓገዛት ናብቶም ዕጥቛት ጉጅለታት ተመሓላልፎ ከምዝነበረት ኣብ ጸብጻብ ተጠቒሱዎ ይርከብ።

ኣብዚ ግዜ እቲ ኣውራ ሓጥያት ኤርትራ ኮይኑ ዘሎ ስርዓት ህግደፍ፡ ዕንደራኡ ስግረ ዶባትን ዉቕያኖሳትን ኤርትራ መሓውር ስለዝሰደደ እንተ ሓቕነት ይሃልዎ ኣይሃልዎ ኣህጉራዊ እገዳ ተበይኑሉ፡ ብሓጺር ገመድ ከምዝተኣስረ ኸልቢ ዓቕሉ ጸቢቡዎ ዕንክይክይ ክብል ይረአሎ። ኩሉ ሕጂ ዘካይዶ  ዘሎ ምንቅስቓስ፡  ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣኑ ናይ ምድሓን እምበር ንህዝቢ ወይ ሃገር ናይ ምግልጋል ስጉምቲ ኣይኮነን። ኣጀንዳን ሓልዮት ሃገርን ህዝቢ ፈጺሙ የብሉን። ተሪፎሞ ዘለዉ ኣዕሩኽ እቶም ብፖለቲካዊ ብዕልግና ዝዳረጉዎን ዝበልጹዎን መራሕቲ ገለ ሃገራት ኣዕረብን  እዮም። ስለዚ እቲ ተኣሲሩሉ ዘሎ ገመድ ኣብ ክሳዱ ክሳብ ዝጥምጠም ተቓውሞና ከነኽርረሉ ይግባእ።

ኣብ ውሽጢ ሃገርና ዝፈጸሞን ዝፍጽሞ ዘሎ ግብረሽበራ ዝበዝሐ ስለዝኾነ፡ ኣብ ሶማል ምስ ግብረሽበራውያን ተሓባቢሩ ኣይተሓባበረን ፡ እቲ ኣብ ላዕሊ ተዘርዚሩ ዘሎ ሞርትዖታት ሓቂ ኣለዎ ዶ? ወይስ የብሉን? ዝብል ሓተታ ብዙሕ ከካትዓናን ንምጽራዩ ግዜ ከነጥፍእ ዘገድሰናን ኣይኮነን። ብመንጸሩ ነቲ ኣብ ልዕሊ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ዝፍጽሞ ዘሎ ምግሃስ መሰላትን ግብረሽበራዊ ስርሓትን ብምቅላዕን ብምኹናንን፡እቲ ስርዓት ብጉዳይ ሶማል ጥራይ ዘይኮነ ብዝያዳ ብጉዳይ ህዝቢ ኤርትራውን ክኹነንን ክእገድን ኣለዎቢልና ምእንቲ ህዝብና ብምጥባቕ ዓቕሉ ከነኸሩጠሉን፡ እቲ ውጹዕ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ምእንቲ ክብሩን መሰሉን ኣንጻር እዚ ፍጹም ምልካዊ  ስርዓት ክለዓል ጫፍ ፈትሊ ቃልሲ ከነጨብጦን መርሖ ከነርሕወሉን ጥራይ እዩ ዝግባእ።

እዚ ተወሲኑ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ብከመይ ኣብ ባይታ ብግብሪ ክሰርሕ እዩ?

 

እዚ ተወሲኑ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ፡ ምሕራም ምንቕስቃሳት ንደገ ንዝተወሰኑ መንግስታዊ ሰብ መዚ፡ ምድስካል ኣብ ደገ ዝርከብ ቀዋምን ተንቀሳቃሲ ንብረት፡ ማዕቀብ ምዕዳግን ምሻጥን ኣጽዋር መንግስት ዘናጻጸረ ምኻኑ እዩ ዝግለጽ ዘሎ። የግዳስ ብባህርያቱ ማዕቀብ ምስ ኩነታት ሓንሳብ ዝሽምረር፡ ሓንሳብ ድማ ዝዝርጋሕ እዩ።

ኣብ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ንማዕቀብ ዘተግብራ ክልተ ጉጂለታት ሽማግሌታት ክህልዋ እየን።

1.ናይ ምቑጽጻር ጉጂለ (monitoring group) ።

2.ናይ ማዕቀብ ሽማግሌ (Sanction committee) ።

ናይ ማዕቀብ ሽማግለ ነቲ ማዕቀብ ብግብሪ ዝትግበረሉ ዉጥናት፡ ዝርዝር ኣስማትን ዝርከበሉ ሃገራት ክድስክል ዝግብኦ ቀዋምን ተንቀሳቃስን ንብረት፡ ዝርዝር ኣስማት ካብ ኤርትራ ንደገ ክወጹ ወይ ክገሹ ዘይብሎም መንግስታዊ ሰብ መዝታትን ዉጥን ኣጽዋር ካብ ናብ ኤርትራ ካይኣቱን ካይዉጽእ እዩ። ቀጺሉ ትእዛዛት ከሕልፍ እዩ። ነቲ ዝሓላፈ ትእዛዛትን ዝተሳእለ ዉጥናትን ድማ እታ ናይ ምቑጽጻር ሽማግሌ መዓልታዊ ክትካታተሎን ከተተግብሮን እያ።

ናይ ምቑጽጻር ጉጂለ (monitoring group) ብዘይካ ብኩለን ሃገራት ኣባላት ዉድብ ማሕበር ሃገራት ዝግበር ምቁጽጻር ን180 መዓልታት ዝኣክል ኩሉ ንኤርትራ ዝኣቱ ዝወጽእ ንብረት ብመሬት ኣየር ባሕሪ ክፍትሽ እዩ። ኣብዘን ማዓልታት እዚኣተን ዝኾነ ብረት ካብ ናብ ኤርትራ ክኣቱ ወይ ድማ ኤርትራ ንሶማል ወይ ካልእ ሃገር ከተሕልፍ እንተተረኺባ ነቲ ማዕቀብ ብዕትበት ዳግም ከጽድቆ እዩ።

ኣብ ዉሽጥ 180 መዓልታት ዘሎ ጊዝያት ስርዓተ ኣስመራ ምስ ጅቡቲ ዘለዎ ጸገማት እንተፈቲሑ ን ምስ ሶማልያዉያን ዘለዎ ኣካላዉን መንፈሳዉን ዝምድናታት ኣቃሪጹ ንመጸዋዕታ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ብኣዉንታ እንተዘይመሊሱ፡ እቲ ማዕቀብ ብኩሉእንትንኡ ክትኣታቶን ክሰፍሕን ክዓሙቕን እዉን ይኽእል እዩ።

ሕጂ እዉን እታ ኩዕሶ ንስርዓት ኣስመራ እያ ተሰዲዳትሉ ዘላ። ብግቡእ ቆሊቡ ዝሕዛ እንተኾይኑ ካብዚ ሽግር ክላቀቅ እዩ። ኣነ ዝመጸት ትምጻእ ኢሉ ዕግርግራት ዝቕጽል እንተኾይኑ፡ እታ መሾንቀቃ ገመድ ኣብ ክሳዱ ኣትያ ኣላ ክስሕብዋ ድማ እዮም  መታን ሸለዉ ከብልዎ።

 

እዚ ማዕቀብ ንመንግስታዊ ንጥፈታት ዘናጻጸረ ካብ ኮነ ንህዝቢ ከ ክጸልዎ ዶ ይኽእል?

 

እዚ ሕጅ አብ ርእሲ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህግደፍ ዝተበየነ ማዕቀብ ዝተፈላለና ኤርትራውያን ዝተፈላለየ ኣረኣእያን ኣራዳድኣን ክህልወና ባህርያዊ እኳ እንተኸነ ፡ ሓደ መሰረታዊ ነገር ክፈላልየና ዘይክእል ከርሰ ነገር ግን አሎ። ንሱ ድማ እዚ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ስለዝተረገጸ፡ ወይውን ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ፍትሒ ስለ ዝስኣነ፡ ነዚ ስቅያትን ጭቖናን ህዝቢ ንምፍታሕ ተባሂሉ ዝተገብረ ዘይኮነስ፡ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህግደፍ ብቐንዱ ድማ ዉልቃዊ  ዲክታተርያዊ መራሒ ስርዓት ኤርትራ ብቐጥታ አብ ናይ ካልኦት ሃገራት ጉዳያት ቀዳማይ ን ቀንዲተዋሳኢ ብምኻን አብዘይ ውራዩን ቦትኡን ክቛጻጸርን፡ ዋና በዓል ጉዳይ ሶማል ብምኻኑን ዝመጸ እምበር ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉድብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ስለደንገጸሉን ብሕጋዊ መገድታት ስለዝምልከቶ ኣብ ዉሽጣዊ ጉዳይ ሓንቲ ሃገርን ህዝብን ከምዘይኮነ እዩ። ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ከም ኩሉ ህዝቢ ዓለም ብሰላም ክነብር ዝመርጽ ብዙሕ ሽግር ጸበባ ዘሕለፈን ከቢድ ዋጋ ዝኸፈለ ህዝቢ ኢዩ። ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ምስ ናይ ዞባና ሃገራትን ክልኦት ሓያላት ናይ ምዕራብ ሃገራት ሰላምን ምጥዕዓምን ኣይጾንሖን። እቲ ሃዋኺን ግርጭታት ጻሓታሪ ባህርያቱ፡ ኣጋባብ ኣካይድኡ፡ እምነቱን  ፖሊሲታቱን ድማ ምስ ካልኡት ሃገራት ብሽርከነት ብምክብባርን ብሰላምን ከሰርሕ ዘየኽእሎ ግራቔንን ፈንጠጋር ባህርያት ስለዘለዎ እዩ። እዚ ሕጅ ተጊሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ አብቲ ስርዓት ከቢድ ጸቕጢ ምፍጣሩ ዘይተርፍ እኳ እንተኾነ ንህዝቢ እዉን ብከቢድ ክጸሉ እዩ።

ብቀዳምነት ክንጸር ዝግብኦ ጉዳይ ኣሎ፡ ንሱድማ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ኣብ ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣን ካብዝኹየጥ ስዓትን ዕለት ጀሚሩ፡ ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ኣዝዩ ሰፍ ዘይብል ረዚን ማዕቀብ ገይሩሉ ጸኒሑ እዩ። ነጋዳይ ካይነግድ፡ ሓረስታይ ካይሓርስ፡ ተማሃራይ ካይምሃር፡ ዜጋ ኣብ ዉሽጥ ሃገሩ ናጻ ኮይኑ ካይንቃሳቀስ፡ ካብ ደገ ዝኣቱ ብቀሊሉ ካይኣቱ ካብ ዉሽጥ ንደገ ዝገይሽ ብቀሊሉ ካይወጽእ፡…ወ.ዘ.ተ ከም ሳዕቤን ናይ ኣዝዩ ጊናይ ፖሊሲታቱን ማዕቀባታቱን ድማ ኤርትራዊት ስድራቤት በሪሳ ናብ ፈቀዱ ሃገራት ዓለም እግራ ዝመርሓ ጽኢታ ወይ ተሰዲዳ እያ። ኣብ ርእሲ እዚ ዉሽጣዊ ኣዝዩ ከቢድ ማዕቀብ፡ ናይ ደገ ማዕቀብ እንተተወሲኽዎ ንህዝቢ ክጸልዎ ምኻኑ ዘካትዕ ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን።

ገለ ማናፍቃን ኣይፋሉን ንህዝቢ ክትንክፎ ኣይክእልን እዩ ዝብል ሙጉት ከልዕሉ ይኽእሉ እዮም። ገሊኦም እዉን ደይ ብቀደሙ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ብስርዓት ኤርትራ ኣብ ትሕቲ ሓያል ማዕቀብ ዝጸንሔ እዩ ክብሉ እዮም። ብመሰረቱ ተዛማዲ ዝኾነ ሓቕነት እኳ እንተሃለዎ፡ እቲ ኣብ ትሕቲ ሓያል ዉሽጣዊ ማዕቀብ ዝጸንሔ ህዝቢ ተደራቢ ግዳማዊ ማዕቀብ ምስተደረቦ ኸ ከመይ ክኸዉን እዩ ትብል ሕቶ እንተመሊሶም ኣኻሊ እዩ።

ብንጹር ንምቕማጡ ኩሉ ምጣኔሃብታዊ ንጥፈታት ኣብ ዉሽጥ ኤርትራ፡ ብኩባንያታት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ዝካየድ እዩ። ናይ ህንጻ ኣካላዉን ማሕበራዉን ቅርጻታት፡ ናይ ጸርበት ሓጺንን ዕንጸይትን፡ ናይ ሰደድን ቀረብን፡ ሕርሻን ምህርትን፡ ናይ ማእለማን ስፌት ክዳዉንትን…ወ.ዘ.ተ ታሕቲ ወሪድካ እዉን ዋላ መዓልታዊ ዝብላዕን ዝስተን ሃለኽቲ ቀረባት ንህዝቢ ዝቕርባ እተን ብስም ርትዓዉያን ድዃናት ዝፍለጣ ናይ ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ኣሽባሽቶታት እየን።

ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንኣስታት 80% ዘድሊ ቀረባት ንኤርትራ፡ ብናይ ወጻኢ ሽርፊ ዓዲጉ ዘእትዎ ዝነበረ እዩ። እቲ ናይ ወጻኢ ሽርፊ ዝረኽበሉ ዝነበረ መገድታት ድማ፡-

1.ካብ ኣብ ደገ ዝነብሩ ኤርትራዉያን 2% ሃገራዊ ጉቡእካ ፡ ናይ ድራር ተጋዳላይ፡ ናይ ስዉኣት፡ ናይ ክተት፡ መሬት ክሸጠልኩም፡ ገዛ ክሰርሓልኩም…ወ.ዘ.ተ እንዳበለ ዝረኽቦ ገንዘብ።

2.ብትካል ናይ ገንዘብ ሓዋላ ሂምቦል ኣቢሉ ዝሕዉሎን ኣብቲ ታሕዊላት ብዉሕድ መጠነ ሸርፊ እንዳሃበ ዝዘምቶ ገንዘብ።

3.ብስም ዉልቀሰባት ዝተፈላለዩ ኣገልግሎት ዝህባ ትካላት ኣብ መላእ ዓለም ብምዝርጋሕ ዝእክቦ ዝነበረ ገንዘብ።

4.ኣጽዋራት ብምሻጥን ከም ደላሊን ኣማሓላላፊ ኣብ ማእከል ኬንካ ዝራሰ ዝነበረ ገንዘብ።

5.ብስም ዉልቀሰባት ኣብ ናይ ዓለም ቦንዲታትን ንግድን ኣዋፊሩ ዝግሕጦ ዝነበረ ገንዘብ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ክንደይ ኢልካ እሞ ክጽብጸብ እዩ። እዚ ኣታዊታትን ምንጭታቱን እዚ ገለ በታ ናይ ምቑጽጻር ጉጂለ (monitoring group) ዉዱብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ተዳህሲሱ እንተተፈሊጡ፡ ከተደስክሎ ስለዝኾነት፡ ናይ ወጻኢ ገንዘብ ምጣኔሃብታዊ ዓቕምታቱ ስለዝሽምረር፡ እቲ ቅድሚ ሕጂ ዝቕርቦ ዝነበረ ቀረባት (Supply) ንህዝቢ ክቕርብ ስለዘይክእል፡ ፍጹም ሕጽረታት ቀረባት ከጋጥም እዩ። ምሽምራር ቀረባት ድማ ብቐጥታ ንህዝቢ ክጸልዎ ከምዝኾነ ፍሉጥ እዩ። ሕጽረታት ጽዓት፡ መድሃኒት፡ መግቢ…ወ.ዘ.ተ እንተኣጋጢሙ ድማ ምጣኔሃብታዉን ማሕበራዉን ሓርጎጽጎጻት ክፍጠር ምኻኑ ንጹር እዩ።

እሞ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ፖሊሲታቱ ይቕይር ዶ ነዚ ኣጋጢምዎ ዘሎ ተጽዕኖታት ንምፉኻስ? ካብ ባህርያቱ ነቂልካ ፍጹም ዝቕየር ስርዓት ኣይኮነን። ብኣንጻሩ ጸቢብ ሃገራዉነት ክኹስኹስ ክፍትን እዩ። ክሰርሓሉ ድዩ ኣይሰርሓሉን ግን ቀስ ኢልካ ኣብ መጻኢ ጊዝያት ዝጥመት ጉዳይ እዩ። ምኽንያቱ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ከቢድ ህዝቢ እዩ። እንታይ ይሓስብ ከምዘሎ እዉን ብቀሊሉ ዝግምገም ህዝቢ ኣይኮነን። ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንኤርትራን ህዝባን  ካብ ማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ነጺሎም ክገዝእዎ ይደልዩ ነይሮም፡ እታ ዝደልይዋ ዕላማ ድማ ኮይናትሎም ኣላ። ኩሎም ምልካዉያን ምልኮም ንምቕጻልን ዕድመ ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣኖም ንምንዋሕ ንሃገሮምን ህዝቦምን ካብ ማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ብምንጻል እዮም ክቕጽሉ ህርዲግ ዝብሉ።

 

 

እዚ ማዕቀብ’ዚ ንስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ከዉድቆ ዶ ይኽእል?

 

ብባህርያቱ ማዕቀብ፡ ንፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ንምቕያር ዝትኣታቶ ኣይኮነን። እንታይ ድኣ ነቲ ማዕቀብ ዝግበረሉ ዘሎ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ባህርያቱ ንምቕያር ዝግበር ከቢድ ዲፕሎማስያዊ ምጣኔሃብታዊ ፖሎቲካዊ ጸቕጥ እዩ። ንሓደ ስርዓት ከምዚ ዓይነት ዓለምለኻዊ ጸቕጥታት ክሕይሎ እንኮሎ፡ ጎኒጎኑ ናይ ህዝቡ ዉሽጣዊ ጸቕጢ ክህሉ ኣለዎ። ዉሽጣዊ ህዝባዊ ጸቕጥ እንተዘይተፈጢሩ፡ እዚ ስርዓት እዚ ከምዛ ዝገብራ ዘሎ ህዝቢ እንዳበልዔ ክቕጽል ምኻኑ ፍሉጥ ክኸዉን ኣለዎ። ስለዚ እዚ ዘይረብሕን ኣብ ዝኾነ ነገር ዘየብጽሕ ጉርሕታት ሓዲግና ብዛዕባ ናይ ጽባሕ ደቕናን ደቂ ደቕና ክንሓስብ ኣሎና። ባዕላዊ ኩነታትና ከነንቕሕ ክንጽዕር ኣሎና።

 

እዚ ማዕቀብ ንኤርትራዊ ተቃዉሞ ደንበ ዕላምኡ ንምዕዋት ክሕግዞ ዶ ይኽእል?

 

እዚ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ፡ ካብ ጂኦ-ፖሎቲካ ዝመንጨወ ኮይኑ፡ ካብ ዉሽጣዊ ድሪኺት ዝመጸ እኳ እንተዘይኮነ፡ ከም ሓደ ናይ ግዳም ሓገዝ ሮቛሒታት ንዋት ንተጻረርት ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ክዉሰድ ይክኣል እዩ። ብመንጸር እዚ ኣጋጢሙ ዘሎ ዘይቐጥታዊ ግዳማዊ ሓገዛት፡ ተጻይ ደንበ ቀንዲ ስትራተጂኡ ሓንጺጹ ዘዳለወን፡ ነብሱ ዝሰርዓን ክኸዉን ኣለዎ። ንመሰረታዊ ለዉጢ ዝድለ እንተኾይኑ፡ እቲ ቀንዲ ሓይሊ ካብ ዉሽጥ ሃገርን ህዝብን ዝመንጨወ ክኸዉን ኣለዎ። ኣቀዲመ ዝጣሕመስክዎ ጉዳይ እዩ፡ ጎኒ ጎኒ እዚ ከቢድ ግዳማዊ ጸቕጢ ጥርኑፍን ኣድማዕን ዉሽጣዊ ድሪኺት ክህሉ ኣለዎ። ደጋዊ ሓገዛት ብዉሽጣዊ ድሪኺታት ዝተደረኹን ዝመጹ እንተዘይኮይኖም ንመዓላ ተጻይ ደንበ ይኹን ህዝቢ ክዉዕሉ ኣይክእሉን እዮም። ብኣንጻሩ ነቲ ምልካዊ ስርዓትን ንተቃወምቱን ኣብ ሓደ እዋናት እንዳልመሱ ዝኸዱ ግዳማዊ መዳኸሚ ንዋት እዮም።

ተቃዉሞ ደንበ ኤርትራ “ዝሕይል” ዘሎ ዘምስሎ ናይ ዝጠፈሻ ዉድባት ምጽንባራትን ብኣንጻሩ ድማ ናይ ዝጠፍሻ ዉድባት ምፍንጫላትን ጋህዲ ኣብ ዝኾነሉ እዋናትን ብተወሳኺ ንሃይሞኖታዊ፡ ዞባዊ፡ ፖሎቲካዊ፡ ኤትኒካዊ፡ እንዳዊ ትኹላዊ ምትፍንናታት (polarization) ኣትዩ፡ ከምዚ ዝኣረገ ጻሕሊ ኣብ ነንሕድሕዱ እንዳተጋጨወ ፈጋዕጋዕ ኣብ ዝብለሉ ዘሎ ወቕቲ ነዚ ተረኺቡ ዘሎ ዘይቀጥታዊ ግዳማዊ ሓገዛት ክጥቀመሉ ኣይክእልን እዩ። እዚ ገምጋም ካብ ሕማቕ ድሌታተይ ዝነቕል ዘይኮነስ፡ ንሱ እቲ ሓቂ ስለዝኾነ እዩ።

እታ ክገብራ ዝኽእል ከም ነፍስወከፍ ታራ ሰብ ሪኢኹም ማዕቀብ ተገይርሉ ካብ ምባል ሓሊፉ ዝገብሮ ነገራት የሎን። ምኽንያቱ ነንሕድሕዱ ክጋጮን ክምርዖን ክፋታሕን ነቲ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ክጥምቶን ክገጥሞን ጊዝያትን ንያትን ዘለዎ ስለዘይኮነ እዩ።

እዚ ማዕቀብ ንኤርትራዊ ተቃዉሞ ደንበ ዕላምኡ ንምዕዋት ክሕግዞ ዝኽእል ንዋት እዩ ነይሩ፡ የግዳስ ጊዝያት ኣብ ዘይረብሕ ጉዳያት ሓሊፉ (too late) ። ኣቀዲሙ ዝኣክል ኣካላዉን ስነኣእሙራዉን ምድላዋት ስለዘይተገብረሉ፡ ቅጽበታዊ መሕነኒ ቃልሱ ክግልገለሉ ኣይክእልን እዩ። ከም መንቀልን ካብዝሓለፈ ጌጋታቱ መኤረምን ተጠቂሙ ግን ቀንዲ ናይ ቃልሲ ፈለግ ወይ ውሽጣዊ ሰረት ዘለዎ ውድብ (main stream) ንክፈጥር ከም ንዋት ክጥቀመሉ ይኽእል እዩ።

እቲ ዓቢ ትጽቢት ዝግበረሉ ካብ ዉሽጥ ኤርትራን ካብ ማእከል ህዝቢ ኣብ ዉሽጥ ኤርትራ ዘሎ ተቃዉሞ ገንፊሉ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ማዕረ እቲ ግዳማዊ ጸቕጥታት ጸቕጢ ክገብረሉ እንተተኻኢሉ እዩ። እዚ ተኣምር እዚ ክጋሃድ ድማ ህዝብና ናይ ሞት ወይ ሕየት ሕቶ ዉሳኔ ክዉስን ኣለዎ።

 

ነዚ ማዕቀብ’ዚ ንኽኸዉን ተቃሊስናሉ ኢና ኢሎም ዝጽዕዱ ማናፍቃን ኤርትራዉያን ክህልዉ እዮም።

 

ብጋህዲ ወይ ብቲሕም ቲሕም ነዚ ማዕቀብ’ዚ ንኽኸዉን ተቃሊስናሉ ኢና ኢሎም ዝጽዕዱ ማናፍቃን ክህልዉ እዮም። ኩሉ ግን ዕሎቃ እዩ። ነዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ክትግበር ዝተቃለሰሉ ባዕሉ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ እዩ። ጉጂለ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ እቲ ቀንዲ መሪሒነት ማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ማዕቀብ ክገብረሉ ክጽዉዕን ክደፍእን እንኮሎ፡ ማእከሎትን ታሕተዎት ካድራታቱ እዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ካይከዉን ዘይካሕኩሕዎ ኣፍደገን ዘይገበርዎ ጻዕርታት የሎን። ብዝኾነ ማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ነቲ ቀንዲ መሪሕነት ስለዝጥምት፡ ጠለባት ቀንዲ መሪሒነትን ባህርያቱን ኣብ ግምት ብምእታዉ ነቲ ማዕቀብ ኣብ እንግድዑ ከምዝጻዓኖ ገይሩ ኣሎ። ነዚ ብመርትዖ ንምስናዩ ብዕለት 17 ታሕሳስ 2009 ፕረሲደንት ኢሰያስ ከምዚስዕብ ኢሉ “ ምዕባይ ወይ ምሕያል ግዳማዊ ተጻብኦታት ምልክት ግስጋሴናን ዕብየትናን እዩ”። ንምርድኡ እዚ ጥቕስ እዚ ኣጸጋሚ ስለዘይኮነ፡ ነባባይ ባዕሉ ንኮካማስዖ ክሓድገሉ እየ። ስለዚ ማዕቀብ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ ንክግበር መን ተቃሊሱሉን ጽዒሩሉን ብስነኣእሙራዊ ቕኒት ኣቶ ኢሰያስ ንጹር እዩ።

ትንፋስን ሞያን ዘይብሎም መናፍቓን ሕጂ ክልዓሉ እዮም፡ ገሊኦም ኣነ ንኤዉሮጳ ማሕበረ ኮም፡ ገሊኦም ንስቴት ዲፓርትሜንት፡ ገሊኦም ንሴኔተር ፍላን ዶ ፍላን ፡ ገሊኦም ንሚኒስተር ወይ ኮምሽነር ፍላን ዶ ፍላን ረኺበዮ ኣዛራሪበዮ ነዚ ማዕቀብ ክግበር ደፌዮ ክብሉ ከምዝኽእሉ ፍሉጥ እዩ። ነዚኦም ከምዚኦም ዓይነት ማናፍቃን ናይ ፖሎቲካ ነጋዶ ስንኻ መዊጽካ ምስሓቖም ጥራይ ከድሊ እዩ።

ልዕሊ ኩሉ ግን ኣብ ከምዚ ናይ ጽልግልግን ዕግርግር እዋናት ንሌባ ክሰርቕ ስለ ዝጥዕሞ፡ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ክነቕሓሉን ክጥንቀቀሉን ዝግብኦ ጉዳያት ኣሎ። ንሱ ድማ ክብረቱን ናጽነቱን ንጋሓላሉ ካይሸይጥ ወይ ኣብ ጊናያት ኣእዳዉ ካየዉድቕ እዩ። ኣብ ከምዚ ዝኣመሰለ ሓደገኛ እዋናት ካብ ፍሬኻን ማህጸንካን ዝፈለሱ፡ ገሊኦም ካድራታት ደርጊ፡ ገሊኦም ኣገልገልቲ ዓባይ ኢትዮጵያ፡ ገሊኦም ኣንጻር ናጽነትን ሓርነትን ኤርትራ፡ ገሊኦም ዉልቃዊ ሕነ ሕኒኦም ንምፍዳይ፡ ገሊኦም ናይ ጸላእቲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ዝኾኑ ዑሱባትን ሃሱሳት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ጋዜጠኛታት፡ ተጣበቕቲን ተሓለቕትን ሰብኣዊ መሰላት፡ ተሓለቕቲ ረብሓ ህዝብን ግዝኣተ ሕጊን ተመሲሎም ብብርኩ ከምበርክኽዎ ክፍቱኑ ምኻኖም እዮ።

ገሊኦም እዉን ንመንግስት ኢትዮጵያ ወይ መንግስት ኣመሪካ ኣካላዊ ስጉምታት ክወስዳ ክጽዉዑ ምኻኖም እዮ። ኣብዚ እዉን ኤርትራዉያን ጥንቃቄ ከድልየና ምኻኑ ክንፈልጥ ኣሎና። ኩሉ ዝግበር ለዉጢ ካብ ዉሽጣዊ ዓቕምታትና ድሌታትናን ጥራይ ዝነቀለ ክኸዉን ኣለዎ።

 

እዚ ማዕቀብ’ዚ ኣብ ጂኦ-ፖሎቲክስ እንታይ ጽልዋ ክህልዎ እዩ?

 

ኣብ ናይ ቀርኒ-ኣፍሪቃ ዞባዊ ፖሎቲካ ዓቢ ጽልዋ ክህልዎ እዩ። ምኽንያቱ ንኤርትራ ኣብዚ ከባቢ ትጻወቶ ዝነበረት ኣዉንታ ወይ ኣሉታ ግዴታት ይሓዝእን ይቁኑን ስለዘሎ፡ ኣዉንታ ወይ ኣሉታ ጽልዋታት ክህልዎ እዩ። ብዓቢኡ ግን እዚ ማዕቀብ ኣብ ሃገረ ኤርትራ ተገይሩ ዘሎ፡ ንኢትዮጵያ ኣብ ምሕያልን እስትንፋስ ኣብ ሙስካዕን ዓቢ ድፌት “ክህልዎ እዩ። ካብዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ተረባሕቲ ጅቡታዉያን፡ ሶማላዉያን፡ ኬናዉያን ወይ ኡጋንዳዉያን ኣይኮኑን፡ እንታይ ድኣ ብሓፈሻ ካብተን ቀንዲ ናይ መልሕቕ ሃገር ዝኾነት ኢትዮጵያዉያ፡ ብፍላይ ድማ ኣመሪካ ጥራይ እዮም። ኣመሪካዉያን ባዕላቶም ስግራት ፈጢሮም፡ ነቲ ዝተፈጥረ ሽግራት ኣብ ምምሕዳሩ ቅንዲን ወሰንትን ኮይኖም ስለዝሰርሑ፡ ኣብ ወቕት ምምሕዳር እቲ ጸገማት ኣብ ክሊ ስትራተጂካዊ ረብሓታቶም ስለዝጸምድዎ እዩ።

ጎኒ ጎኒ እዚ ኢትዮጵያ ኣስትንፋስ እንተረኺባ ንኣፍላጋታን ዋሓይዛን ኣብ ልማዓትን ጽዓት ኤለክትሪክ ክጥቀመሉ ክትፍትን ስለዝኾነት፡ ናይ ማይክዖን ጽዓትን ፖሎቲክስ (Hydro politics) ጽልዋታት ኣብ ሱዳን ግብጺ ከላዕል ስለዝኾነ ኣብዚ ከባቢ ዓቢ ሓደጋታት እዉን ክጋሃድ እዩ። ኣመሪካዉያን ኣብ ናይ ግዳም ፖሊሲታቶም ንኢትዮጵያ ከም ቀንዲ ማሓዛን ኣተግባሪትን ሓላዊትን እስትራተጂካዊ ረብሓታቶም ኣብ ቀርኒ-ኣፍሪቃ ስለዝወስድዋ ብክልተ ኣእጋራ ኣጣጢሓ ክትረግጽ ኣለዋ። ብክልተ ኣእጋራ ኣጣጢሓ ክትረግጽ ድማ ኩሉ ዝግበር ክገብሩላ ናይ ግድን እዩ። እዚ ዉሳኔታት እዚ ግን ንኹሉ ከባቢ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃን ማእከላይ ምብራቕን ሴሜናዊ ኣፍሪቃ ረብሓታቱ ስለዝትንክፎ ብኣሉታ ክጸሉ እዩ።

እዚ ጉንዖን ሓለፋን ንካልኦት ጎሮባብቲ ሃገራት ዝሃበ፡ ኣብ ልዕሊ ሃገረ ኤርትራ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ኣስኪርዋ ኢትዮጵያ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኤርትራ ወትሃደራዊ ስጉምቲ ክትወስድ እንተሃቂና፡ ብሙሉኡ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ንዘይጠፍእ እቶን ክቕየር ምኻኑ እዉን ክፍለጥ ዘለዎ ሓቂታት እዩ። ስለዚ ኢትዮጵያዉያን ምእንት ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ሃገራትን ኣህዛብን ክብሉ ዘይኮነ፡ ምእንት ገዛእ ርእሶም ሃገርን ኣህዛብን ክብሉ ክጥንቀቁ ኣለዎም።

እዚ ዘሎ ዓለማዉን ዞባዉን ፖሎቲካን ረብሓታቱን ኣብ ነፍስወከፍ ካሊኢት ናይ ጊዝየ እንዳተቃያየረ ስለዝኸይድ ርሒብ ዓቕልን ዓሚቕ ልቦናን ዝሓትት እዩ። ኣብ ነፍስ ወከፍ ቃራና መገዲ ንድሕሪት ንቕድሚት ንየማን ንጸጋም እንዳጠመትካ ክትጓዓዝ ዝሓትት መድረኽን ጊዝያትን ኢና ዘሎና።

ወዮ ድኣ ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ዘለዉ መንግስታት ብሙሉኦም ምልካዉያን ፖሎቲካዊ ስርርዓት (Totalitarians) ኮይኖም እምበር: ኣብ መንጎ ሱዳን፡ ኤርትራ፡ ኢትዮጵያ፡ ጅቡቲ፡ ኬንያን ኡጋንዳ ድሓን ዝኾነ ምርድዳኣትን ዝምድናታትን እንተዝህሉ፡ ኩነታት ሶማልያዉያን ፍታሕ ምስረኸበ። ልዕሊክሉ ድማ ንማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ብብርኩ ተምበርኪኹ ከምዝልምን ምስገበርኦ ነይረን። ግን ካብ ቦዓል ኣልደ-መልዲ ኣይተረኽበን።

እዚ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ስትራተጂካዉን ሃብታም ብባህርያዊ ሃብቲ ስለዝኾነ፡ መላእ ዓለም መዓልታዊ ጠመትኡ ኣቋሪጽሉ ኣይፈልጥን እዩ። ሃገራት ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ መታን ካይረብሓን፡ ረብሓታት ምዕራባዊ ዓለም ክራጋገጽ፡ ምዕራባዉያን ፈላሊኻ ጊዛ ዝብል መትከላትን ሜላታትን ተጠቂሞም፡ ንናይ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ሃገራት ኣብ ነንሕድሕደን ከምዝናቖታ ገይሮም ረብሓታቶም ከዉሕሱ ህርድግ ይብሉ ኣለዉ። ነዚ ኣህዛብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ክነቕሓሉን ክፈልጦን ዝግብኦ ጉዳይ ስለዝኾነ፡ ፈሊጣን ናይዚ ኣህዛብ እዚ ንህዝቦምን ኣታሓሳስብኡን ክቕይሩ ክጽዕሩ ኣለዎም።

ስለዚ እዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ብፍላይ ንኤርትራ ብሓፈሻ ድማ ንጂኦ-ፖሎቲካዊ ኣፍሪቃ ብኣዉንታን ብኣሉታን ክጸልዎ ምኻኑ ዘጣራጥር ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን።

 

መዛዘሚ፡

ከምዚ ኣብ ላዕሊ ብዝተፈላለየ ንኡሳን ኣርእስታት ዝጣሕመስክዎ ካብ ኮነ እቲ ሓቕታት፡ ኣብ መዛዘሚ ጽሑፈይ ንዉሽጣዊ ዓቕምታትናን ክንገብሮ ዘሎናን ኤርትራዉያን ዘተኮረ ጥራይ እዩ ክኸዉን። እዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ንኤርትራ ንህዝባን ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓታን ኣብ ትርኢት ማሕበረሰብ ዓለም ጉጉይ መልክዕ ዝህብን ዝደወነን እዩ። ጠንቁ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ እኳ እንተኮነ ተደረብቲ ደፋእትን ስሓብትን ግዳማዉን ዉሽጣዉን ኩነታት ከምዘለዉዎ እዉን ዝካሓድ ሓቕታት ኣይኮነን። በዚ ተገይሩ ዘሎ ማዕቀብ ዝሑጎስ ዜጋ እንተሎ ድማ ወይ ጸላኢ ኤርትራ ዝኾነ ወይ ንኤርትራ ክቦ ዝደርበየላ ሰብ ጥራይ እዩ። እቲ ምንታይስ ኤርትራ ክንብል እንኮሎና ንሰለስተ መሰረታዉያን ቁምነገራት ዝጠመረ እዩ። ንሱ ድማ ክሊ መሬት፡ ህዝብን ፖሎቲካዊ ምሕደራ እዩ። ልክዕ ከምዚ ኣካላት ወዲ ሰብ ዓይኑ ወይ እግሩ ወይ ኢዱ ክትንከፍ ወይ ክጉዳእ እንኮሎ መላእ ኣካላቱ ዘቀንዝዎን ዝስምዖን። ካብዘን ሰለስተ ኣካላት ኤርትራ ሓንቲ ኣካላ ክትንከፍ እንኮላ፡ ብሙሉእ ኣካላታ እዉን ክትንከፍን ክቕንዘዉ ምኻኑ ፍሉጥ ክኸዉን ኣለዎ።

ዘይተርፍ ጉዳይ ኮይኑ ካብ ኮነ ግን፡ ነዚ ኣጋጢሙ ዘሎ ናይ ማዕቀብ ተረኽቦ መንቀሊኡ፡ ትሕዝትኡ፡ ኣዋጋግንኡ ብጉቡእ ፈሊጥና ከመይ ጌርና ንረብሓ ኤርትራን ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ንቕይሮ ክንዛተየሉን ክንቃለሰለሉን ዘሎና ጉዳይ እዩ። ናይ ብሓቂ ንረብሓታት ህዝብናን ሃገርናን ክንቕይሮ ዝድለ እንተኾይኑ፡ ንዉሽጣዊ ዓቕምታትና ዘጣናኽር ኣዝዩ ኣድማዕን ተዓጻጻፊን ስልትን ስትራተጂ ክህልወና ኣለዎ። እቲ መሰረታዊ ሕቶ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ነዚ ንማዕቀብ ክግበር ዝዓደመን ዝደፍኤን ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ መጀመርታ ክሓቶን ቡቑዕ መልስታት ንክረክብ ንክቃለስ ምድፍኡን ምሕያሉን እዩ።

ጎኒ ጎኒ እዚ ኣብ ህዝቢ ዝተሰረተ ኣግእዞን እስትራተጂ’ዚ፡ ነቲ ዘሎና ቡኽረትን ሃጋፍን መሰረታዊ ጸገም ዓቕሚ ዉዳቤን ትካላዊ ኣሰራርሓ ምምላእ እዩ። ነዚ ንምግባር ድማ  ዳይነሚኩ ኣብ ህዝቢ ዝተሰረተ ውድብ ወይ ግንባር ምህናጽ እዩ። እዚ ድማ ብሓደ መገዲ ጥራይ እዩ ክብጻሕ ዝኽእል። ኩሎም ሃገራዉያንን ዲሞክራስያዉያን ባእታታት ብቡዙሕ ፈተናታት ዝሓለፈ ሓቀኛ ጥርናፈ ብምምዕባል ውሕስነት ደሞክራስን ግዝኣተ ሕግን ዝኸውን ኣማራጺ ቀንዲ ሓይሊ ምፍጣር እዩ። ህዝቢ ንስርዓቱ ክሓትት እንተጀሚሩ! ብመንጸሩ ድማ ንተረግታ ህዝቢ ዝሰምዕን ኣብ ህዝቢ ዝዕቖብን ንህዝቢ ዝሓቑፍ ቀንዲ ናይ ተጻይ ዉደባ እንተተፈጢሩ እዚ ማዕቀብ እዚ ንረብሓ ህዝብናን ሃገርናን ክቕየር ወይ ክዉዕል ይኽእል እዩ።

ገለ ጉሩሃት ዜጋታት ወይ ገለ ሎኽመኛታት፡ ነቲ ኣቀዲሙ ክነጥፍ ዝጸንሔ ዉደባታት ኣመልኪቶም፡ እሞ ነዚ ሕጂ ዝጣራነፍ ዘሎ ወይ ካብ ዉድብ ፍላን ተነጺሉ ዘሎ ኣብ ዉሽጡ ኣቲና ዘይነሕይሎ ዝብል ጥቁዉ ጨለ ርእይቶታት ከምጹ ይኽእሉ እዮም። ትማሊ ትማሊ መዋእሉ ንኤርትራ ኢሉ ዝቃለስ ዝነበረ ዜጋ፡ ኤርትራዉነቱ ራሕሪሑ ብወረዳ ብእንዳ ብኤትኒክ ብሃይማኖት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ተጠርኒፉ ክቃለስ ድሕሪ ምጽንሑ ምስ ፈሸለ፡ ፍሽለቱ ንምኽዋልን ረብሓታቱ ንምርግጋጽ ሽዉሃት ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣኑ ንምዕንጋል ተመሊሲ ብሃገር ደረጃ ዘሓስቦ ቀዋምነት ዘለዎ መትከላት ኣታሓሳስባትን መርገጺታት ስለዘይብሉ፡ ቡቑዕ ኣይኮነን ኣካል ናይቲ ዝባሃል ዘሎ ዉደባ ክከዉን እዉን ኣይክኣልን እዩ። ሓደ ፖሎቲካዊ ዉደባ ከም ፖሎቲካዊ ዉደባ እንተፈሺሉ ምጽጋኑ ኣይክኣልን እዩ። ኣብ ዕንኡ ሓድሽ ፖሎቲካዊ ዉደባ ክትምስርት ኣሎካ።

ኣብ ኤርትራ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ከም ፖሎቲካዊ ምጣኔ ሃብታዊ ማሕበራዊ ድፕሎማስያዊ ስርርዕ ክፈሽልን ክወድቕን እንኮሎ፡ ብማዕሪኡ ድማ ካብ ዝቃለሰሉ ዘለኹ ፖሎቲካዊ ዉድብ ህ.ሰ.ግ.ኤ ጀሚርካ ብሙሉኡ ፖሎቲካዊ ዉድባት፡ ሰልፍታት፡ ማሕበራት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ፈሺለንን ወዲቀንን እየን። ሕጂ…ዝወደቀ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓትን ዝወደቀ ተቃዉሞ ደንበ ካብ ሃለዉና፡ ኣብ ዕንኡ ሓድሽ ዘመናዊ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓትን ሓድሽ ዘመናዊ ፖሎቲካዊ ናይ ተቃዉሞ ደንበ የድሊ ኣሎ። በዘን ዘላዋና ፖሎቲካዊ ዉድባት ኣቢልና ናይ ብሓቂ ሃገርናን ህዝብና ካብ ቃራና መገዲ ከነናግፎ ኣይንኽእል ኢና።

ሓድሽ ዘመናዊ ፖሎቲካዊ ናይ ተቃዉሞ ደንበ ስለዘየሎ ግን ህዝቢ ክዛነ ኣለዎ ማለት ኣይኮነን። ህዝቢ ጸቕጥታቱ ኣብ ልዕሊ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ብደገን ዉሽጥን ከሕይል ኣለዎ። ምስ ተበግሶታት ምሕያል ጸቕጥታት ናይ ህዝቢ፡ መራሕቱ ህዝቢ ካብ ዉሽጡ ከዉጽኦም ይኽእል ስለዝኾነ ስክፍታታት ክገዝኦ የብሉን፡ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ እስትንፋስ ክረክብ የብሉን። ኣብ መጨረስታ ጽሑፈይ ንህዝቢ ኤርትራ ብትሪ ይጽዉዕ ኣሎኹ፡ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ከቢድ ጸቕጥ ክገብር። ምኽንያቱ ኣብ ዉሽጥ 180 መዓልታት ዘሎ ጊዝያት ስርዓተ ኣስመራ ምስ ጅቡቲ ዘለዎ ጸገማት እንተፈቲሑ፡ ምስ ሶማልያዉያን ዘለዎ ኣካላዉን መንፈሳዉን ዝምድናታት እንተኣቋሪጹን ንመጸዋዕታ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ብኣዉንታ እንተመሊሱ እቲ ማዕቀብ ክልዓል ሰለዝኽእል እዩ። ህዝቢ ንመጸዋዕታት ጸማም እዝኒ እንተሂብዎ ግን ኣነ እዉን ካብ ሰበይ ዝኸፍኣኒ ከምዘይኮነ የፍልጥ።

ከም መቀጸልታ ማዕቀብ ባይቶ ጸጥታ ዉዱብ ሕቡራት ሃገራት ዝኸደ መርገጺታት።

1. ስድሪ

2. ኤሪትራና.ኮም

3. ግንባር ሃገራዊ ድሕነት ኤርትራ

4. ሕብረት ኤዉሮጳ

5. ኣዉስትራልያ

6. ሓልዮት ሰብኣዊ መሰላት – ኤርትራ (Human Rights Concern – Eritrea)

7. 2010-02-22, Eritrean nationals from all over Europe stage demonstration in Geneva denouncing vicious US sanctions resolution.

8. 2010-02-22, Eritrean nationals from all over Europe stage demonstration in Geneva denouncing vicious US sanctions resolution.

9. Eritrean UN just Protest San Francisco 2010

 

10. Eritrean Washington dc protest, mass demonstration in Washington dc

11. Security Council report over Somalia and Eritrea

12. ሃበስ-ቀደስ ወይዞሮ ሰላም ኪዳነ Press TV-Africa Today-Are sanctions on Eritrea justified?-03-16-2010(Part1

13. ሃበስ-ቀደስ ወይዞሮ ሰላም ኪዳነ Press TV-Africa Today-Are sanctions on Eritrea justified?-03-16-2010(Part2)

14. ሃበስ-ቀደስ ወይዞሮ ሰላም ኪዳነ Press TV-Africa Today-Are sanctions on Eritrea justified?-03-16-2010(Part3)

15. ሃበስ-ቀደስ ወይዞሮ ሰላም ኪዳነ Press TV-Africa Today-Are sanctions on Eritrea justified?-03-16-2010(Part4)

16. ምምሕዳር ፕረሲደንት ባራክ ሑሴን ኦባማ ኣብ ልዕሊ የማነ ገብርኣብን ገለ ኣርካናት-ኪናት ሶማልያ ናይ ምንቕስቃስን ንብረት ማዕቀብ ትእዛዝ ፈሪሙ

ወድሓንኩም!

መርእድ ዘርኡ

28/12/2009

Copyright 2009 Merid Zeru. All rights reserved. This material may be published, broadcast, or redistributed with proper citation of Merid Zeru. m.zeru@hotmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

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December 24, 2009

Security Council imposes sanctions on Eritrea over its role in Somalia, refusal to withdraw troops following conflict with Djibouti

Filed under: Report — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 7:52 am


SC/9833

Security Council
6254th Meeting (AM)

Resolution 1907 (2009) Stipulates Arms Embargo, Travel Restrictions, Asset Freezes

Gravely concerned about findings that Eritrea had provided support to armed groups undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia and that it had not withdrawn its forces following clashes with Djibouti in June 2008, the Security Council today imposed an arms embargo on that country, in addition to travel restrictions on and a freeze on the assets of its political and military leaders.

Adopting resolution 1907 (2009) by a vote of 13 in favour to 1 against (Libya), with 1 abstention (China) under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council reiterated its demand that Eritrea withdraw its forces to the positions of the status quo ante in the area where its conflict with Djibouti had occurred, acknowledge its border dispute and cooperate fully with the Secretary-General’s good offices. It further demanded that the country cease all efforts to destabilize or overthrow, directly or indirectly, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia.

The Council demanded that all States, in particular Eritrea, cease arming, training and equipping armed groups and their members, including Al-Shabaab, which aimed to destabilize the region or incite violence and civil strife in Djibouti. It further demanded that Eritrea cease facilitating travel and other forms of financial support to individuals or entities designated by the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) regarding Somalia and other sanctions committees, in particular the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) regarding Al-Qaida and the Taliban.

Imposing an embargo on arms and associated materiel to and from Eritrea, the Council called upon all States to inspect all cargo to and from Somalia and Eritrea, and upon discovery of prohibited items, to seize and dispose of them. It decided that travel restrictions and an asset freeze should apply to individuals, including but not limited to, the Eritrean political and military leadership, so designated by the Committee on Somalia Sanctions, as well as to governmental and parastatal actors and entities privately owned by Eritrean nationals living within or outside Eritrean territory, so designated by the same Committee. Also by the text, the Council expanded the Committee’s mandate to undertake those additional tasks, as well as that of the Monitoring Group assisting the Committee.

Libya’s representative, in explaining his negative vote, said more time and concerted cooperation were needed to persuade all countries in the Horn of Africa to establish mechanisms to deal with their problems. Libya had advocated the use of international legal bodies to resolve border disputes, which were the main cause of disagreement in the region. Describing the resolution as unrealistic and too hasty, he said sanctions were not the ideal way to solve the current problem and their humanitarian effects would exacerbate current tensions. Libya would have preferred that the Council wait until the African Union Summit in January, which would consider the problems of the Horn of Africa.

China’s representative said he had abstained from the vote because the Council should always act prudently in imposing sanctions. The priorities in the region were dialogue between countries and restraint from violence. China supported international efforts to encourage reconciliation in Somalia, but the resolution of that country’s problems required the cooperation of all countries in the region. In addition, the African Union was better suited to address conflicts in the Horn of Africa through diplomatic methods.

Djibouti’s representative said that, by adopting the resolution, the Council had further highlighted its growing cooperation with the African Union in maintaining peace and security on the continent. Noting that the July 2009 African Union Summit in Sirte, Libya, had called upon the Council to impose sanctions on foreign actors, particularly Eritrea, supporting the efforts of armed groups to destabilize Somalia, he said Eritrea had also refused to implement resolution 1862 (2009) regarding its border dispute with Djibouti. The Government of Djibouti today warmly welcomed justice at last against the “unprovoked, naked and blatant aggression against my country by Eritrea almost two years ago”. Hopes were high in the Horn of Africa that today’s action would be the beginning of the end to prolonged, destructive, senseless and wasteful wars and hostilities.

Somalia’s representative said Eritrea had been a major negative factor in prolonging the conflict in his country. Eritrea had been giving refuge and safe haven to known terrorists, rebels, spoilers and violators of human rights, whose purpose all along was to destabilize Somalia. It had been providing, financing and facilitating the flow of arms and other resources to the extremists and terrorist elements in Somalia, as well as economic, political, moral and propaganda support to the armed insurgents and spoilers. However, the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia stood ready to enter into serious dialogue with Eritrea in order to solve any outstanding matters.

Other speakers welcomed the Council’s adoption of the resolution following the request of the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority for Development. Noting that the measures imposed by the resolution were not comprehensive but targeted and corrective, and that designation of individuals and entities to be subjected to its measures was in the hands of the Somali Sanctions Committee, they expressed hope that future actions by Eritrea would allow the Council to review the measures in a positive way.

Also speaking were the representatives of Uganda, Viet Nam, Austria, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, Turkey and Burkina Faso.

The meeting began at 10:40 a.m. and ended at 11:25 a.m.

Background

The Security Council met this morning to consider a draft resolution submitted by Uganda regarding the situation between Djibouti and Eritrea, as well as the Djibouti Agreement and Peace Process for a resolution of the conflict in Somalia. Also before it was a letter dated 15 December from the Permanent Representative of Eritrea to the Council President (document S/2009/658), in which he urges Council members to use their influence to ensure the rejection of the draft in its entirety.

Action on Draft Resolution

The Council adopted the draft resolution with 13 members voting in favour to 1 against ( Libya), with 1 abstention ( China).

The full text of resolution 1907 (2009) reads as follows:

“The Security Council,

“Recalling its previous resolutions and statements of its President concerning the situation in Somalia and the border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea, in particular its resolutions 751 (1992), 1844 (2008), and 1862 (2009), and its statements of 18 May 2009 (S/PRST/2009/15), 9 July 2009 (S/PRST/2009/19), 12 June 2008 (S/PRST/2008/20),

“Reaffirming its respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence and unity of Somalia, Djibouti and Eritrea, respectively,

“Expressing the importance of resolving the border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea,

“Reaffirming that the Djibouti Agreement and Peace Process represent the basis for a resolution of the conflict in Somalia, and further reaffirming its support for the Transitional Federal Government (TFG),

“Noting the decision of the 13th Assembly of the African Union (AU) in Sirte, Libya, calling on the Council to impose sanctions against foreign actors, both within and outside the region, especially Eritrea, providing support to the armed groups engaged in destabilization activities in Somalia and undermining the peace and reconciliation efforts as well as regional stability (S/2009/388),

“Further noting the decision of the 13th Assembly of the AU in Sirte, Libya expressing its grave concern at the total absence of progress regarding the implementation by Eritrea of, inter alia, resolution 1862 (2009) regarding the border dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea (S/2009/388),

“Expressing its grave concern at the findings of the Monitoring Group re-established by resolution 1853 (2008) as outlined in its December 2008 report (S/2008/769) that Eritrea has provided political, financial and logistical support to armed groups engaged in undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia and regional stability,

“Condemning all armed attacks on TFG officials and institutions, the civilian population, humanitarian workers and the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) personnel,

“Expressing its grave concern at Eritrea’s rejection of the Djibouti Agreement, as noted in the letter of 19 May 2009, from the Permanent Representative of Eritrea to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council (S/2009/256),

“Recalling its resolution 1844 (2008) in which it decided to impose measures against individuals or entities designated as engaging in or providing support to acts that threaten peace, security and stability in Somalia, acting in violation of the arms embargo or obstructing the flow of humanitarian assistance to Somalia,

“Expressing its appreciation of the contribution of AMISOM to the stability of Somalia, and further expressing its appreciation for the continued commitment to AMISOM by the Governments of Burundi and Uganda,

“Reiterating its intention to take measures against those who seek to prevent or block the Djibouti Peace Process,

“Expressing its deep concern that Eritrea has not withdrawn its forces to the status quo ante, as called for by the Security Council in its resolution 1862 (2009) and the statement of its President dated 12 June 2008 (S/PRST/2008/20),

“Reiterating its serious concern at the refusal of Eritrea so far to engage in dialogue with Djibouti, or to accept bilateral contacts, mediation or facilitation efforts by sub-regional or regional organizations or to respond positively to the efforts of the Secretary-General,

“Taking note of the letter of the Secretary-General issued on 30 March 2009 (S/2009/163), and the subsequent briefings by the Secretariat on the Djibouti-Eritrea conflict,

“Noting that Djibouti has withdrawn its forces to the status quo ante and cooperated fully with all concerned, including the United Nations fact-finding mission and the good offices of the Secretary-General,

“Determining that Eritrea’s actions undermining peace and reconciliation in Somalia as well as the dispute between Djibouti and Eritrea constitute a threat to international peace and security,

“Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

“1. Reiterates that all Member States, including Eritrea, shall comply fully with the terms of the arms embargo imposed by paragraph 5 of resolution 733 (1992), as elaborated and amended by resolutions 1356 (2001), 1425 (2002), 1725 (2006), 1744 (2007) and 1772 (2007) on Somalia and the provisions of resolution 1844 (2008);

“2. Calls upon all Member States, including Eritrea, to support the Djibouti Peace Process and support reconciliation efforts by the TFG in Somalia, and demands that Eritrea cease all efforts to destabilize or overthrow, directly or indirectly, the TFG;

“3. Reiterates its demand that Eritrea immediately comply with resolution 1862 (2009) and:

(i) Withdraw its forces and all their equipment to the positions of the status quo ante, and ensure that no military presence or activity is being pursued in the area where the conflict occurred in Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island in June 2008;

(ii) Acknowledge its border dispute with Djibouti in Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island, engage actively in dialogue to defuse the tension and engage also in diplomatic efforts leading to a mutually acceptable settlement of the border issue; and,

(iii)Abide by its international obligations as a Member of the United Nations, respect the principles mentioned in Article 2, paragraphs 3, 4, and 5, and Article 33 of the Charter, and cooperate fully with the Secretary-General, in particular through his proposal of good offices mentioned in paragraph 3 of resolution 1862 (2009);

“4. Demands that Eritrea make available information pertaining to Djiboutian combatants missing in action since the clashes of 10 to 12 June, 2008 so that those concerned may ascertain the presence and condition of Djiboutian prisoners of war;

“5. Decides that all Member States shall immediately take the necessary measures to prevent the sale or supply to Eritrea by their nationals or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of arms and related materiel of all types, including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned, and technical assistance, training, financial and other assistance, related to the military activities or to the provision, manufacture, maintenance or use of these items, whether or not originating in their territories;

“6. Decides that Eritrea shall not supply, sell or transfer directly or indirectly from its territory or by its nationals or using its flag vessels or aircraft any arms or related materiel, and that all Member States shall prohibit the procurement of the items, training and assistance described in paragraph 5 above from Eritrea by their nationals, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, whether or not originating in the territory of Eritrea;

“7. Calls upon all Member States to inspect, in their territory, including seaports and airports, in accordance with their national authorities and legislation, and consistent with international law, all cargo to and from Somalia and Eritrea, if the State concerned has information that provides reasonable grounds to believe the cargo contains items the supply, transfer, or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 of this resolution or the general and complete arms embargo to Somalia established pursuant to paragraph 5 of resolution 733 (1992) and elaborated and amended by subsequent resolutions for the purpose of ensuring strict implementation of those provisions;

“8. Decides to authorize all Member States to, and that all Member States shall, upon discovery of items prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 above, seize and dispose (either by destroying or rendering inoperable) items the supply, sale, transfer, or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 of this resolution and decides further that all Member States shall cooperate in such efforts;

“9. Requires any Member State when it finds items the supply, sale, transfer, or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 5 and 6 of this resolution to submit promptly a report to the Committee containing relevant details, including the steps taken to seize and dispose of the items;

“10. Decides that all Member States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the entry into or transit through their territories of individuals, designated by the Committee established pursuant to resolution 751 (1992) and expanded by resolution 1844 (2008) (herein “the Committee”) pursuant to the criteria in paragraph 15 below, provided that nothing in this paragraph shall oblige a state to refuse entry into its territory to its own nationals;

“11. Decides that the measures imposed by paragraph 10 above shall not apply:

(a) where the Committee determines on a case-by-case basis that such travel is justified on the grounds of humanitarian need, including religious obligation; or,

(b) where the Committee determines on a case-by-case basis that an exemption would otherwise further the objectives of peace and stability in the region;

“12. Decides that all Member States shall take the necessary measures to prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale or transfer by their nationals or from their territories or using their flag vessels or aircraft of arms and related materiel of all types, including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned and the direct or indirect supply of technical assistance or training, financial and other assistance including investment, brokering or other financial services, related to military activities or to the supply, sale, transfer, manufacture, maintenance or use of weapons and military equipment, to the individuals or entities designated by the Committee pursuant to paragraph 15 below;

“13. Decides that all Member States shall freeze without delay the funds, other financial assets and economic resources which are on their territories on the date of adoption of this resolution or at any time thereafter, that are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the entities and individuals designated by the Committee pursuant to paragraph 15 below, or by individuals or entities acting on their behalf or their direction, and decides further that all Member States shall ensure that no funds, financial assets or economic resources are made available by their nationals or by any individuals or entities within their territories to or for the benefit of such individuals or entities;

“14. Decides that the measures imposed by paragraph 13 above do not apply to funds, other financial assets or economic resources that have been determined by relevant Member States:

(a) to be necessary for basic expenses, including payment for foodstuffs, rent or mortgage, medicines and medical treatment, taxes, insurance premiums, and public utility charges or exclusively for payment of reasonable professional fees and reimbursement of incurred expenses associated with the provision of legal services, or fees or service charges, in accordance with national laws, for routine holding or maintenance of frozen funds, other financial assets and economic resources, after notification by the relevant Member State to the Committee of the intention to authorize, where appropriate, access to such funds, other financial assets or economic resources, and in the absence of a negative decision by the Committee within three working days of such notification;

(b) to be necessary for extraordinary expenses, provided that such determination has been notified by the relevant Member State(s) to the Committee and has been approved by the Committee; or

(c) to be the subject of a judicial, administrative or arbitral lien or judgment, in which case the funds, other financial assets and economic resources may be used to satisfy that lien or judgment provided that the lien or judgment was entered into prior to the date of the present resolution, is not for the benefit of a person or entity designated pursuant to paragraph 13 above, and has been notified by the relevant Member State(s) to the Committee;

“15. Decides that the provisions of paragraph 10 above shall apply to individuals, including but not limited to the Eritrean political and military leadership, and that the provisions of paragraphs 12 and 13 above shall apply to individuals and entities, including but not limited to Eritrean political and military leadership, governmental, and parastatal entities, and entities privately owned by Eritrean nationals living within or outside of Eritrean territory, designated by the Committee:

(a) as violating the measures established by paragraphs 5 and 6 above;

(b) as providing support from Eritrea to armed opposition groups which aim to destabilize the region;

(c) as obstructing implementation of resolution 1862 (2009) concerning Djibouti;

(d) as harbouring, financing, facilitating, supporting, organizing, training, or inciting individuals or groups to perpetrate acts of violence or terrorist acts against other States or their citizens in the region;

(e) as obstructing the investigations or work of the Monitoring Group;

“16. Demands that all Member States, in particular Eritrea, cease arming, training, and equipping armed groups and their members including Al-Shabaab, that aim to destabilize the region or incite violence and civil strife in Djibouti;

“17. Demands Eritrea cease facilitating travel and other forms of financial support to individuals or entities designated by the Committee and other Sanctions Committees, in particular the Committee established pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999), in line with the provisions set out in the relevant resolutions;

“18. Decides to further expand the mandate of the Committee to undertake the additional tasks:

(a) To monitor, with the support of the Monitoring Group, the implementation of the measures imposed in paragraphs 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 13 above;

(b) To designate those individuals or entities subject to the measures imposed by paragraphs 10, 12 and 13 above, pursuant to criteria set forth in paragraph 15 above;

(c) To consider and decide upon requests for exemptions set out in paragraphs 11 and 14 above;

(d) To update its guidelines to reflect its additional tasks;

“19. Decides to further expand the mandate of the Monitoring Group re-established by resolution 1853 (2008) to monitor and report on implementation of the measures imposed in this resolution and undertake the tasks outlined below, and requests the Secretary-General to make appropriate arrangements for additional resources and personnel so that the expanded Monitoring Group may continue to carry out its mandate, and in addition:

(a) Assist the Committee in monitoring the implementation of the measures imposed in paragraphs 5, 6, 8,10, 12 and 13 above, including by reporting any information on violations;

(b) Consider any information relevant to implementation of paragraphs 16 and 17 above that should be brought to the attention of the Committee;

(c) Include in its reports to the Security Council any information relevant to the Committee’s designation of the individuals and entities described in paragraph 15 above;

(d) Coordinate as appropriate with other Sanctions Committees’ panels of experts in pursuit of these tasks;

“20. Calls upon all Members States to report to the Security Council within 120 days of the adoption of this resolution on steps they have taken to implement the measures outlined in the paragraphs 5, 6, 10, 12 and 13 above;

“21. Affirms that it shall keep Eritrea’s actions under review and that it shall be prepared to adjust the measures, including through their strengthening, modification, or lifting, in light of Eritrea’s compliance with the provisions of this resolution;

“22. Requests the Secretary-General to report within 180 days on Eritrea’s compliance with the provisions of this resolution;

“23. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”

Statements

RUHAKANA RUGUNDA ( Uganda) recalled that, at its 2009 Summit in Sirte, Libya, the African Union had called on the Council to impose sanctions against foreign actors both within and outside the region, especially Eritrea, who provided support to armed groups in Somalia, thus undermining peace and reconciliation efforts as well as regional stability.

He said the resolution just adopted was a clear manifestation of the cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union in efforts to resolve conflicts on the continent. The measures imposed by the text were not comprehensive, but targeted and corrective, and it was to be hoped that Eritrea would take sufficient actions to enable the Council to positively review the measures imposed today.

LE LUONG MINH (Viet Nam), noting that he had voted in favour of the text, called on the parties concerned to show maximum restraint in implementing relevant Council resolutions, and to engage in dialogue to resolve the border dispute between them. International conflicts, including border disputes, should be resolved by peaceful means and in compliance with international law and the provisions of the United Nations Charter. He urged the Council to keep the situation under constant review.

ABDURRAHMAN MOHAMED SHALGHAM ( Libya) said more time and concerted cooperation was needed to persuade all countries in the Horn of Africa to establish mechanisms for dealing with their problems. Libya advocated the use of international legal bodies to resolve border disputes, which were the main cause of disagreement in the region. It supported Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government and the proposed creation of a Government of National Unity there, under the Djibouti Agreement. Libya called on all parties to sign up to and implement that accord.

Describing the resolution just adopted as unrealistic and too hasty, he said his own country had been subject to sanctions and knew well their counter-productive effects. Sanctions were not the ideal way to solve the current problem, and their humanitarian effects would exacerbate current tensions. The African Union would hold its next Summit in January, when it would consider the problems in the Horn of Africa. Libya would have preferred that the Council wait until the results of that meeting were known, he said.

ZHANG YESUI ( China) said he had abstained from the vote because the Council should always act prudently in imposing sanctions. The priorities in the region were dialogue between countries and restraint from violence. China hoped that countries in the region would make stronger efforts to create a harmonious environment so that reconciliation could take place in Somalia and the wider region.

Expressing support for international efforts to encourage reconciliation in Somalia, he said, however, that resolution of the country’s problems required the cooperation of all countries in the region. China called on them to engage with each other in that spirit. In addition, the African Union was better suited to address conflicts in the Horn of Africa through diplomatic methods.

CHRISTIAN EBNER ( Austria) said he had voted in favour of the text as his country condemned all acts undermining the peace process in Somalia. It was significant that the targeted sanctions were based on a two-step approach. Designation for targeted sanctions would be determined by the Somalia sanctions Committee, but beyond the imposition of sanctions, it would be important to seek solutions to the underlying problems.

YUKIO TAKASU ( Japan) said he had voted in favour of the resolution as his country respected African initiatives to address the conflicts in the Horn of Africa. The disputes should be resolved through diplomatic means, including mediation. There was a need to accelerate efforts to resolve conflicts in the Horn of Africa, and it was to be hoped that all States in the region, including Eritrea, would comply with the resolution. The Council would keep the measures under constant review in light of future developments.

MARK LYALL GRANT ( United Kingdom) said the resolution had created a new sanctions regime in response to continued violations of Council resolutions in the Horn of Africa. It followed requests by two regional organizations, the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The Monitoring Group on sanctions regarding Somalia had presented evidence that Eritrea was providing support to armed groups undermining the country’s peace process. Moreover, Eritrea had failed to comply with resolution 1862 (2009) regarding its border dispute with Djibouti. The United Kingdom urged the Government of Eritrea to stop its illegal actions and engage with international partners to increase stability in the region. Future Council actions would depend on its response.

CLAUDE HELLER ( Mexico) said the sanctions regime would improve chances for reconciliation in Somalia, and his country, which chaired the Sanctions Committee, would continue working to ensure that the measures provided incentives for the various regional actors to join a process leading towards stability in the region.

ERTUĞRUL APAKAN ( Turkey) said that, in principle, disputes should be solved through diplomacy and dialogue, and it was therefore to be he hoped that the resolution would be used by all parties to encourage dialogue and to resolve all outstanding issues in the Horn of Africa.

Council President MICHEL KAFANDO (Burkina Faso), speaking in his national capacity, said that while his country considered sanctions as a mechanism of last resort, he was deeply concerned by the serious deterioration of the security situation resulting from attacks by the Al-Shabaab movement, which was supported by foreign entities.

He said he remained convinced of the African Union’s importance in resolving the continent’s conflicts, noting that the resolution included review mechanisms. He urged Eritrea to work with others in the region to foster a diplomatic solution to the problems in Somalia and the wider Horn of Africa.

ROBLE OLHAYE ( Djibouti) said that by adopting the resolution, the Council had further highlighted its growing cooperation with the African Union in maintaining peace and security on the continent. The Sirte Summit had called on the Council to impose sanctions on foreign actors, particularly Eritrea, that supported the efforts of armed groups to destabilize Somalia and minimize reconciliation efforts.

Noting that Eritrea had refused to implement resolution 1862 (2009) on its border dispute with Djibouti, he said there had been a convergence of views between the Council and the African Union on the lack of cooperation and dialogue on the part of Eritrea, which had shown nothing but disdain while refusing to cooperate, in spite of the offers of good offices made by the two organizations.

The part of Djibouti’s territory now occupied by Eritrea had been the subject of a previous contention in 1996, he recalled. A decade later, in 2008, there had been a military confrontation between the two countries, followed by the occupation of Ras Doumeira and Domeira Island by Eritrean forces. The conclusions of a Security Council fact-finding mission had been clear, unmistakable and far-reaching. They were a damning indictment of the Eritrean regime’s erratic behaviour and its dishonest and deliberate distortions of facts.

Recalling Eritrea’s rejection of resolution 1862 (2009), which demanded that it implement specific actions within six weeks, he said it was inconceivable that a year had passed without any implementation of the resolution. Today, justice had been done at last against the “unprovoked, naked and blatant aggression against my country by Eritrea almost two years ago”. Rarely had a sanctions resolution involved three countries, impacting on a whole region, and hopes were high in the Horn of Africa that today’s action would be the beginning of the end of the prolonged, destructive, senseless and wasteful wars and hostilities. The measures outlined in the resolution targeted only the Eritrean regime’s destructive role in Somalia and its infringement of Djibouti’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.

He went on to point out that Eritrea had been “stonewalling” for one and a half years to avoid providing information about the conditions and whereabouts of 19 Djiboutian prisoners of war, while denying access to them by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. However, Djibouti continued to treat Eritrean prisoners of war humanely, allowing access to all concerned. He demanded that Eritrea, as a Member State of the United Nations, accept its international obligations under the Third Geneva Convention.

ELMI AHMED DUALE (Somalia) said Eritrea had been a major negative factor in prolonging the conflict in his country, while, on the Djibouti front, it had had demonstrated an unfriendly and non-neighbourly attitude all along. Eritrea had been giving refuge and safe haven to known terrorists, rebels, spoilers and violators of human rights, whose purpose all along was to destabilize Somalia. It had been providing, financing and facilitating the flow of arms and other resources to the extremists and terrorist elements in Somalia, as well as economic, political, moral and propaganda support to armed insurgents and spoilers.

He said Eritrea’s hostile activities of the past two decades included blatant sabotage of peace efforts and reconciliation, as well as frustrating the efforts of the previous Transitional National Government and the current Transitional Federal Government. Despite all those hostile activities, however, the Transitional Federal Government was ready at any time to enter into serious dialogue with Eritrea to solve any outstanding matters, although that country’s past actions did not give confidence that it would change its hostile attitude. Somalia therefore sought the support of the Council, the United Nations and the international community in confronting Eritrea squarely, now rather than later, and encouraging it to join the ongoing international efforts to enhance the ongoing peace and stabilization process in Somalia.

For information media • not an official record

 http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/EGUA-7YZTY4?OpenDocument
UN: http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2009/sc9833.doc.htm

December 23, 2009

UN slaps sanctions on Eritrea

Filed under: Report — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 7:25 pm

By Gerard Aziakou (AFP)

UNITED NATIONS — The UN Security Council slapped an arms embargo on Eritrea Wednesday and targeted sanctions on its leaders for aiding Somali rebels and refusing to withdraw troops from its disputed border with Djibouti.

Thirteen of the council’s 15 members voted in favor of Resolution 1907 but veto-wielding China abstained while Libya, the lone Arab member of the council and the current chair of the African Union, voted against.

The Ugandan-drafted text bans weapons sales to and from Eritrea, while also imposing travel restrictions and asset freezes on the country’s political and military leadership.

The measure demands that Asmara “cease all efforts to destabilize or overthrow, directly or indirectly” the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in Somalia.

It urges member states to conduct inspections on their territory, including seaports and airports, of “all cargo to and from Somalia and Eritrea” if there is reasonable grounds to believe the shipments contain banned weapons or related material.

The text also presses Eritrea to withdraw troops immediately from disputed territories along its frontier with Djibouti and engage in diplomatic efforts leading to “a mutually acceptable” settlement of their long-running border dispute.

It further calls on all member states, in particular Eritrea, to stop “arming, training and equipping armed groups that aim to destabilize the region or incite violence and civil strife in Djibouti,” including Somalia’s hardline Islamic militants.

Libya’s deputy UN ambassador, Ibrahim Dabbashi, said “sanctions are not the ideal way of resolving problems” and would likely exacerbate the humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa.

The Chinese ambassador to the United Nations, Zhang Yesui, argued the “council should act prudently in adopting sanctions.”

He stressed that sanctions should not replace diplomatic efforts to resolve the issue through negotiations.

In a letter sent to the Security Council ahead of the vote, Eritrea’s UN ambassador, Araya Desta, urged all members “to use their influence to ensure the rejection of this draft resolution in its entirety.”

He accused Washington of being “the main architect” of a resolution that “has no factual or legal justifications.”

“The UN Security Council cannot penalize Eritrea for its views simply because (Asmara) does not toe or conform to Washington’s policy choices and preferences,” Desta charged.

Both the African Union and the east African Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) bloc, which groups Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda, have been calling since July for UN sanctions to punish Eritrea for backing Somali rebels.

The United States has blamed Eritrea for fanning the violence in Somalia, a country that has not known peace for nearly two decades. A UN monitoring group has detailed how Asmara supplies arms and cash to Somali opposition forces.

Somalia’s wobbly transitional government controls virtually no territory and has been unable to govern the country due to constant and fierce fighting with hardline Islamist militias.

On Eritrea’s border dispute with Djibouti, the resolution reiterated the Security Council’s call in Resolution 1862 adopted in January that Asmara pull out its forces and all their equipment from disputed territories and ensure that no military presence or activity take place in the area.

That resolution had given Eritrea five weeks to pull out.

The dispute over the Ras Doumeira promontory on the shores of the Red Sea last flared up in June 2008 after previous clashes in 1996 and 1999.

It has assumed a greater strategic significance because both France and the United States have bases in the former French colony. The United States stations over 1,200 troops in Djibouti, which hosts an anti-terrorism task force in the Horn of Africa.

Resolution 1907 also directed UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon to report within 180 days on Asmara’s compliance with its provisions.

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5g0XnF3848Jzg5Dh1mAyt2gZ8g4Mg

December 17, 2009

ዎ ኣምላኽ ፈጣሪ ዓለምን ኩሉ ፍጡር ዝኾንካ፡ በጃኻ ተመለሰና ንኤርትራ!

Filed under: Politics — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 4:20 pm

ኣብዚ ዘለናዮ መድረኽ’ዚ ዝካየድ ማሕበራዉን ዲሞክራስያዊ ሰዉራ፡ ጫፍ ፈትሊ ቃልሲ ንህዝቢ ዘጨበጠ፡ ኣብ ማሕበራዊ ክብርታትናን ጸጋታትና ዝተሞርከሱ ብቀንዱ ንማሕበራዊ ጸጋታትና ንክዕቢ ዝኹስኹሱ ክኾዉን ኣለዎ። ፈልስታት ማሕበራዊ ጸጋታትና እንተሰዊዶም ካልኦት ዝተረፉና ምዕባሌታት ብቀሊሉ ክመጹ ዝኽእሉ እዮም።

መሰረት ምዕብልና ምስዋድ ማሕበራዊ ጸጋታት ስለዝኾነ፡ እምበኣር ኣብዚ ጊዚያት’ዚ ኣነሰላስሎም ቃልስታት ኣዝዮም በላሕትን መስተውዓልትን ክኾኑ መድረኽ ዝጠልቦም እዮም። ነዚ ክውን ንምግባር ድማ እዞም ቃልስታት መደባቶም ብእብረን ቅድመተከተል ቀዳምነታት ኣነጺርካ ብደቂቕ ክሕንጽጹን ንምትግባሮም ሓያል ጻዕሪ ክነካይድን፡ ንህልውን መጻእን ኩነታት ኣብ ግምት ብምእታው ንመዳባትና ብቐጻሊ ክንግምግምን ከነማዕብሎም ኣገዳሲ ይኸውን።

ዘለዉና ማሕበራዊ ጸጋታትን ሰብኣዊ ዓቕምታትና በብሓደ እንዳተፈግሩ እንተኸይዱም ግን ከም ሃገርን ህዝብን ህላዌናን ቀጻልነትናን ኣብ ምልክት ሕቶ ዝኣተወ እዩ።

ሓደ ሕብረተሰብ ከም ሽሙ ዝጠፈኦ ንህቢ ክባታተን እንተጀሚሩ፡ ናይብሓቂ እቲ ድኽመት ኣብ እቲ መራሒ ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣን ጨቢጡ ዘሎ ጉጅለ ድዩ  ወይስ ኣብቲ ህዝቢ ንምርድኡ ጸገም ኣይመስለንን። እትምንታይስ ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣን ዝጨበጡ ብኣጻብዕ ዝቑጸሩ ነቲ ህዝቢ ክበታትንዎ እንተጀሚሮም፡ ህዝቢ ብህዝባዊ ናዕቢ ተጠቂሙ ደዉ ከብሎም ይኽእል እዩ ። ህዝቢ በትሪ ኣብ ኢዱ ተመን ኣብ እግሩ እንኮሎ፡ ዕባራን ሁጡርን ምኽንያታት ኣንዳፈጠረ፡ ባዕሉ ክበታተን እንተጀሚሩ ግን እቶም ዉሑዳት ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣን ጭቢጦም ዘለዉ ጉጅለ ክገትእዎን ደዉ ከብልዎን ኣይክእሉን እዮም። እዚ ክብል እንኮሎኹ ንክዉንነት ኤርትራ ኣሉ ቀጣን ኢልካ ንምክሓድን ኣጻብዕተይ ንተወሰነ ወገን ሓላፍነት ንምስካም ዘይኮንኩ፡ ንሱ ጥራይ ስለዝኾነ እቲ ዘንተ-መጎታዊ ሓቂ እየ። ነዚ ሓቕታት እዚ ብመርትዖ ንምቕራቡ ካብ 2001 ክሳብ 2009 ዓ.ም.ፍ ካብ ኤርትራ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ተቓዊምና ኢሎም ዝተሰዱ ዜጋታት ክንደይ ካብ % ካብኣቶም ኣብ ንጡፍ ምቕዋም ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ነብሶም ኣብ ሱሩዕ ዉድባትን ሰልፍታትን ኣስጢሞም ይቃለሱ ኣለዉ? እንተፈሊጥና ኣኻሊ ክኸዉን እዩ። ብሓርፋፍ ግምታት ግን ዳርጋ መብዛሕትኦም ኣብ ዉልቃዊ ሂወቶም እዮም ተጸሚዶም ዘለዉ።

ኣብ ታሪኽና ተመጻእና፡ ቃልሲ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ፡ ዘገምታዊ፡ ሓያለ ነገራት ዝሓለፈ ቃልሲ ወለዶታት ምዃኑ እዩ፡  ነፍስወከፍ ወለዶ ክስከሞ ዝግባ ሞራላዉን ሃገራዉን ሓላፍነታት ተሰኪሙ መድረኽ ዘፍቀደሉ ኩዉንነት እንዳተጠቕመ ንኤርትራ ኣብዛ በጺሓታ ዘላ ኣብጺሕዋ እዩ። ኣብ መስርሕ ግድነታዊ ሓቕታት እዩ፡ ዳግም ንድሕሪት ክሳድና ጠዊና ክንጥምት እንተሃቂና ከም ሕሉፋት ታሪኽ ዘሕፉሩናን ዘነዩቱናን ፍጻሜታት ከም ዘለዉ ዝክሓድ ኣይኮነን። ንዝኾነ ሕሉፍ ፍጻሜታት ኣብቲ ዝተፈጸሙሎም መድረኽ ኬንካ ክትመዝኖም እንኮሎኻ ተዛማዲ ሓቕታት ክህልዎም ይኽእል እዩ ወይ ፍጹም ጌጋታት ክኾኑ ይኽእሉ እዮም። ድሕሪ ምፍጻሞም ኣብ መበል ራብዓይ ወይ ሓሙሻይ ወለዶ ተወሊድካ ክትመዝኖም ግን ምናልባሽ ትርጉም እዉን ትስእነሎም ትኸዉን ኢኻ። ስለዚ ከምኡ ስለዝኾነ እዩ ድማ ጊዝየ ንሓቂ ሓሶት ይገብሮ፡ ንሓሶት ድማ ሓቂ ይገብሮ ዝብሃል። እዚ ናይ ታሪኽ ፍልስፍና ሰጊርና፡ ነፍስወከፍ ወለዶ ብዝሓለፉ ወሎዶታት ክዋዓል ዘይኮነ፡ ዝሓለፉ ወሎዶታት ዝፈጸምዎ ጉድለታት ክማሃረሉ፡ ዝፈጸምዎ ዘነይት ስራሓት ድማ ክሕበነሉን ኣብቲ ንሱ ዘለዎ መድረኽ ካብኡ ዝጥለብ ሞራላዉን ሃገራዉን ጉቡኣት ድማ ብኣዉንታ ክምልስ ኣለዎ።

ዘይካሓድ ጉዳይ እዩ፡ ኣብ ኤርትራ ፍጹም መሰል ዜጋዊ ግህሰት ዘዘዉትር ዝሕላገቱ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ኣሎ። እዚ እኳ እንተሃለወ ክሳብ ሂወት ዝኾነ ዜጋ ኣብ ሓደጋ ስለያዉን ወትሃደራዉን መካኒዝም ብኣካልን ጽላሎት ዘይኣተወት፡ ዜጋ ትብዓትን ሓቦን ተቀኒቱ ቃልሱ ኣብ ከስዕ እቲ ስርዓትን ከስዕ ህዝብን ኮይኑ ክቃለስ ሙሉኡ ሞራላዉን ሃገራዉን ሓለፍነታቱ እዩ። ስደት ከም ቀዳማይን ምርጫ ክርኤ ኣይግባእን እዩ። ስደት ዝምረጸሉ ጊዝያት ከምዘሎ ኣይኮንኩን ዝኽሕድ ዘሎኹ፡ እንታይ ድኣ ስደት ከም ናይ ሞትን ሕየትን ናይ መጨረስታ ምርጫ ንክትርኤ እየ ዝእምትል ዘሎኹ። ክኣሱሩኻ ክቐትሉኻ እንተመጽዮም ትም ኢልካ ተቀተል ተሓየር ማለተይ እዉን ኣይኮነን። እንታይ ድኣ ክስብ ሂወትካ ንሓደጋ ዘይተቃልዔት ህላዌኻ ኣብ ዉሽጥ ሃገርካ ንምልካዉያን ስርዓታት የጃጅዎም ስለዝኾነ ዓይኒኻ ኣፍጢጥካ ጠምቶም ወይ ድማ ክትኣልዮም ተቃለስ እየ ዝብል ዘሎኹ።

ናይ ብሓቂ ክንዛረብ እንተኼና ገለ ዉሑዳት ናይ ሞት ወይ ሕየት ሕቶ ኮይንዎም ዝወጹ ሓዲግና፡ መብዛሕትኦም ካብ ኤርትራ ዝወጹ፡ ገሊኦም በቲ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ፍሉይ ሓለፋታትን ጉንዖታትን ዝተገብሮሎም እዮም። ገሊኦም ሩኹባት ስድራቤታት ወይ ደቕን ኣዝማድን ላዕለዎት ሰብ መዝታት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ዝኾኑ እዮም። ገሊኦም ድማ ኣብ ደገ ዝነብሩ ኣዝማድ ዘለዉዎም ብከቢድ ሓይሊ ገንዘብ ተጠቂሞም ዝወጹ እዮም። እቲ ናይ ብሓቂ ድኻ-በተኽ ዝባሃል ዝበዝሔ ክፋል ሕብረተሰብና ግን ዛጊት ሓንቲ ካልኢት ናይ ጊዝየ ካየቓረጸት ኣርዑት ጭቆና ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ኣብ ክሳዱ ቶቆሪና ትንፋሱ ተዉጾ ከምዘላ ክንዝንግዕ ዘይብሉ ጭብጥታት እዩ።

ብዕለት 13 ታሕሳስ 2009፡ ኣብ ዞባዊ ውድድር ኩዕሶ እግሪ ምብራቕን ማእከላይን ኣፍሪቃ (CECAFA) ክትጋጠም ዝቐነየት ሃገራዊት ጋንታ ኤርትራ ብምሉኣ፡ እንተላይ ቅያር ተጻወቲ (ሪዘርቫ)  ኣብ ኬንያ ተበታቲና ከምዝተሸርበት፡  ሕጂ እዉን ፖሎቲካዊ ዑቕባ ኣብ ኬንያ ሓቲቶም ከምዘለዉ፡ ዝተፈላለዩ ምንጭታት መራኸቢ ቡዙሓን ዓለምለኸ ካብ  ርእሰ ከተማ ኬንያ፡ ናይሮቢ ሓቢሮም። እዚ ንኣዳምን ሂዋን ዘደንጸወ ወረን ተረኽቦ ንጉራቔናት ዘሑጉስን ንሓለይት ምስሊ ሃገሮሞን ህዝቦም ዘንቀጥቀጠ ወረን ተረኽቦን’ዩ። ንሙሉእ ህዝቢን ሃገርን ወኪላ ኣብ ክፍሊዓለምና እትጻወት ሃገራዊት ጋንታ ኩዑሶ እግሪ ምስ ቅያር ተጻወታ ካብተረፈት እዚ መወዳእታ ምጽኣተ ዓለም እዩ። ተጻወት ክተርፉ ልዕሊኡ እዉን ፖሎቲካዊ ዑቕባ ሓቲቶም ኣብ ካልኣይ ወይ ሳልሰይቲ ሃገር ክነብሩ፡ ነብስ-ወከፍ ፍጡር ክሕርሞም ወይ ከወግዞም ዘይኽእል ሰብኣዊ-መሰላቶም እዩ። እዚ ዉልቃዊ መሰል’ዚ ኣብ ዋጋ-ዕዳጋ ብፍጹም ዝኣቱ ኣይኮነን።

 

 

ከም ተርእዮን ተረኽቦን ኣብ ዓለምና ይኹን ኣብ ኤርትራ ሓድሽ እኳ እንተዘይኮነ፡ ነዚ ተረኽቦ እዚ ፍልይ ዘብሎ ግን ብሙሉኦምን እንተላይ ቅያር ተጻወቲ (ሪዘርቫ) ምትራፎም እዩ። ኣብ ዓለምና መተካእታ ዘይብሉ ነገር የሎን፡ ግን ኣዝዩ ዓቢ ስምብራት ዝሓድግ ፍጻሜ ስለዝኾነ ክንዛረበሉን ብዛዕብኡ ክንጽሕፍን እዉን ግድነታዊ እዩ። ጠንቂ ስደትን ሳዕቤናቱን ካባይ ጀሚርካ ብኣዝዮም ቡዙሓት ሰባት ስለዝተጻሕፈን ዝተዘርበን ሕጂ ናብኡ ተሸሚመ ኣቡጊዳ ክብል ኣይመርጽን።

ንስፖርታዊን ኣትለቲካዉን ዉድድራት፡ ንማህደረ-ትምህርት፡ ንሕክምና፡ ንስራሕ፡ ንምብጻሕ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ኩሉ ካብ ኤርትራ ፉሉይ ጉንዖታት (privileges} ተገይሩሉ ንወጻኢ ዝተላእኸ ዜጋ ብኡ ኣቢሉ ዝሕክል እንተኾይኑ፡ እቲ ገጢሙ ዘሎ ጸገማት ብዘይካ እቲ ወትሩ ንዛረበሉ ከነራጋግጾን እንቃለሰሉ ዘሎና፡ ቡኽረት ግዝኣተ-ሕጊ (rule of law) ብፍላይ ድማ ሕቶ ዜጋዊ ሰብኣዊ መሰላትን ሰብኣዊ ሓርነታት ልዕሊኡ ዝዓረገ ጉዳይ ዘይፈለጥናዮ ክህሉ ኣሎዎ ዝብል ሰኸታታት ኣሎኒ። ነዚ ድማ ብሓባር ኤርትራዉያን ክንድህስሶን ክንፈልጥን ይጽዉዕ ኣሎኹ። እትምንታይሲ ጸገማትና ምፍላጥ ፍርቂ ፍታሕ ናይቲ ነካይዶ ዘሎና ጉዕዞ ቃልሲ ብምኻኑ እዩ። ኩሉ ዜጋ ንደገ ናይ ምዉጻ ዕድል ዝረኸበ፡ ብኡ ኣቢሉ ዝሕክል እንተኾይኑ፡ ነቲ ንኡኡ ንስደት ዝደረኾ ቀንዲ ደራኺ ሮቛሒ መን ክኣልየሉ፡ መን ክፈትሓሉ፡ መን ክቃለሰሉ፡ መን ከቢድ ዋጋ ክኸፍለሉ፡ መን ክስዉኣሉ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ስለዝደለየ እዩ’ዉን ክምለስ ዘለዎ ሕቶ እዩ።

ኣብ ኤርትራ”ብሕጋዊ”መገድታት ወይ ብምልካዊ ስርዓት ኣብ ልዕሊ ህዝብና ብዘታኣታተዎ መላኺ ሕግታት (rule by law) ፍሉይ ሓለፋታት ክትረክብ ሰለስተ መሰረታዉያን ነጥብታት ከተማልእ ኣሎካ።

ቀዳማይ፡ ኩሉ እቲ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ካባኻ ዝጠልቦ ወይ ጉቡኻ ዝብሎ ዘማላእኻ ምስትኸዉን።

ካልኣይ፡ ኣዚኻ ልኡምን ኣቀዲሙን ዲሒሩን ኣብ ታሪኽካ ተጻብኦታትን ተጻይነትን ኣንጻር ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ዘየርኣኻን ዘይነበረካ ሰብ ምስትኸዉን።

ሳልሳይ፡ ዘመድን ዓርኪ ላዕለዎት ሰብ መዚ ወይ ድማ ብጉቦ ላዕለዎት ወትሃደራዉን ስቪላዉን ሰብ-መዚታት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ዝምድናታት ዝሸመትካ ምስትኸዉን ጥራይ እየን።

ነዚ ኣቀዲመ ዝሮቛሕኩዎ ሮቛሒታት ዘይተማልእ ዜጋ እንተኼንካ ድማ ብሂወትካን ገንዘብካን ተጣሊዕካ ንሱዳን፡ ጅቡቲን ኢትዮጵያ ክትኣቱ ኣሎካ ማለት እዩ። ሰለዚ ኩሎም ዜጋታት ብመሰረት ሕግታት ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ተፈቂድሎም ብባሕሪ፡ መሬትን ኣየርን ካብ ናብ ኤርትራ ዝወጹን ዝኣቱዉን ብቀጥታ ወይ ብተዛዋዋሪ ተረባሕቲ-ጉንዖታት (privileged) ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ምኻኖምን ምንባሮም ዘታሓታት ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን። ብመንጸሩ ድማ ዘጠራጥር ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን ተረባሕቲ-ጉንዖ እዉን ከም ነፍስ-ወከፍ ዜጋ ጭቁናት ምኻኖምን ኣብ ገለ እዋናት እዉን ንዝረኽብዎ ጉንዖታት ራሕሪሖም ዝሓሸ ጉንዖታት ከናድዩ ወይ ድማ ኣንጻር እቲ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ደዉ ክብሉ ዝነበረን ዘሎ ተርእዮታት እዩ።

መብዛሕትና ከምዚ ዓይነት ብዕስላዊ ወይ ብተናጸልን ዝጋጥም ናይ ዜጋታት ስደት ክንሰምዕን ክንርእይ እንኮሎና፡ ኣብ ጠንቕ ስደት ጥራይ ተጸሚድና፡ ኣቶኩሮና ኣብ ምርጋም ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ምምኽናይ ምኽንያት ጠንቂ-መስደዲ ዜጋታት ክንጽሕፍን ክንዛረብ እንዉዕል ኣዚና ቡዛሓት ኢና። ብመንጽሩ ስዕቤናቱን ከርሰ መጽያዊ ዉድቀት ሕብረተሰብን ሃገርን ግን ኣይንታይናን እዩ። ከምዝመስለኒ እዚ ዘይሓላፍነታዉን ሓደ ጎናዉን ባዕላዉ ኣጋባብ ኣታናትናን ኣራዳድኣ ካብ ሓንቲ ሰንኮፍ ኩርናዕ እምነት እቲ ነቕል ኮይኑ ይስማዓኒ ኣሎ። ንሱ ድማ ፡”ዓሳ ከተጽንት እንተወሲንካ ባሕሪ ከተጽንፍ ኣሎካ” ካብ ዝብል ዝነቕል ይመስለኒ ኣሎ። እዚ ማለት ድማ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንምድኻም ኩሉ ከፍሪ፡ ክሓስብ፡ ክመርሕ፡ ክቃለስ፡ ሃገርን ህዝብን ክካላኸል፡ ክሃንጽ፡…ወ.ዘ.ተ ዝኽእል ሰብኣዊ ዓቕሚ ተጓሕጊሑ ንስደት እንተወጽዩ፡ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ፈጓዕጓዕ ኢሉ ክወድቕ  ዝብል ሰንኮፍን ዘይክዉነታዊ እምንቶታት ስለዘሎ እዩ። ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ኣብ ናጻ-ዕዳጋ ምጣኔ ሃብታዊ ፖሊስ ሰረተ ፖሎቲካዊ ምሕደራ ተሞርኪሱ ዝነጥፍ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ነይሩ እንተዝኸዉን፡ ከም ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ሃዶሽዶሽ ምስ በለ ነይሩ። ኣብ ፍጹም ምጣኔሃብታዉን ፖሎቲካዉን ግብትና ዝናጣጠፍ ስርዓት ግን ብዘይ ምንዉናዉን ናዕታን ትም ኢሉ ሃዶሽዶሽ ዝብል ኣይኮነን። ንመረዳእታ ኩባ፡ ሱርያ፡ ዚምባብወ…ወ.ዘ.ተ ክንምልከት ንኽእል ኢና። ዋላ ምጣኔሃብታዉን ፖሎቲካዉን ሓርጎጽጎጻት ሰፍ-ነግ የብሎም ህዝቦም እንዳበልዑ ክቕጽሉ ዝፍቱኑ እዮም።

ብቀንዲ መንጸር ተጻያዊ ፖሎቲካ እንተጠመትናዮ እዉን፡ እቲ ኣብ ጎሮባብቲ ሃገራት ብስዉርን ጋህድ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንምዉዳቕ ”ይቃለስ” ኣሎኹ ዝብል ኣካላት ተጻይ ደንበ ኤርትራ፡ ነዚ ሃገሩ ራሕሪሑ ንጎሮባብትን ስግረ-ጎሮባብትን ዝሳግም ዘሎ ዜጋ ኣዕቒቡ ንቃልሲ ክሰርዖን ከሳናድዎን ኣይበቕዔን ዘሎ። ኣብ ነንሕድሕዱ ክዋናጀልን፡ ኣብ ነንሕድሕዱ ቃልኪዳን ክኣስርን ከዉርድን እዉን ጊዝየ ኣቃልቦን ስለዘይብሉ፡ ሃገር ብጽንፈት-ኣእምሮን ሰብኣዊ ዓቕሚ ጉልበት ሰብ ንክትሳቀ ንምግባር፡ ዘካይዶ ፍሉጡን ዘይፍሉጥን ጻዉዒታት፡ ምትብባዓትን ሽርሕታት ደዉ ከብሎ ኣለዎ።

ናይ ተጻይ ደንበ ኤረትራ ብዑቱብ ከስተብህለሉ ዘለዎ ጉዳይ ኣሎ፡ ንሱ ድማ ዝተዘራረገን ዝተበታተነን፡ ዘይተወጠነን መደባቱ ብግቡእ ዘይሓንጸጸሉን ህላዊኡ፡ ተሓላቕነት ንቃልሲ ንቕድሚት ዘየሰጉም ምዃኑ እዩ። ክምዚ ዓይነት ንጥፈታት ብኣንጻሩ ፋሕ ዝበለን ማእዝኑ ዝሰሓተን ንጥፈታት የንግስ። ብኡ ኣቢሉ ድማ ነቲ ቃልሲን ሃገርን ናይ ምድኻም ተራ ከምዝጻወት ዘየጣራጥር እዩ።መንእሰይ ሃገሩ ራሕሪሑ ንክሳግም ኣታባቢዕኳ፡ ነቲ ዝዉሕዝ ሰብኣዊ ዓቕሚ እዉን ኣብ ማዓላ ሃገርን ህዝብናን ክጥቀመሉ እንተዘይበቂዑ ዳግም ዝዓበየ ክሳራ እዩ። ከምቲ ኣድጊ ዝበሎቶ ”ኣነ ዝሞተላ ሳዕሪ ኣይቡቖላ” ”ኣነ ዘይመርሓ ኤርትራ ዋላ ትባድን” እንተኾይኑ ግን እዚ እዉን ዓቢ ገበን እዩ።

ጠንቂ ቀንዲ ደራኺ ዜጋታት ንስደት ምኻን ገበን፡ ስሓቢ ቀንዲ ሮቋሒ ንስደት ምኻን ገበን ። ክልተ ገበናት ብምንም ታኣምር ሓዲኦም ብሳዕቤን ሙኹንያት ክኾኑ ኣይክእሉን እዮም።

ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንገዛእ ርእሱ ግዳይ ናይ ምዕራባዊ ዓለም ዓዉላማዊ ዊዲትን ሽርሕታት ወሲድዋ ስለዘሎ፡ ብተወሳኺ እዉን ን ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣኑ ዕምሪ ንምንዋሕ ጸቢብ ሃገራዉነትን ኣጻብዕቱ ንካልኦት እንዳኣመልከተ ነቲ ሒዝዎ ዘሎ ኣብ ዞናዊን ዓለምለኻዊ ናይ ፖሎቲካ ስትራተጂ ዝተመስረተ ናይ ጸጥታ ስትራተጂ ክቅጽሎ እዩ። እቲ ምንታይሲ ስርዓት ወያኔን መሻርኽቱ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ካብ ሃገራዊ ናይ ጸጥታ ስትራተጂ መስመር መንገዲ ሓዲድ ከምዝዛናበል ገይሮሞ እዮም። ሕጂ ዳግም ናብቲ ንቡሩን ዝግባእን መስመር ክሕዝ እንተፈቲኑ፡ ልክዕ ከምዚ ሓያል ማዕበል ዝጸፍዓ ጃልባ ኣብ ማእከል ዉቑያኖስ ሕምቢልል ኢላ፡ ኣብ ዝተወሰነ ደቓይቕ ንማዓሙቕ ዉቕያኖስ ትጠልቕ ክጠልቕ ሰለዝኾነ፡ ነዚ ዝርኤ ዘሎ ጽኣት-ስደት(Exodus) ንምዕጋት ፖሊሲታቱ ክቕይር ወይ ከማሓይሽ እዩ ኢልካ ምሕሳብ ነዉሪ እኳ እንተዘይኮነ፡ ብፍጹም ዝክኣል ኣይኮነን።

ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ፖሊሲታቱ ክቕይር ርጉጽ ተኽእሎታት ካብዘይሃለዎ፡ ስድራቤታት ኤርትራ ተባታቲነን ጽኣት-ስደት ካብ ኮና፡ ኣብ መንጎ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍን ህዝቢ ኤርትራን ኢድ ንኢድ ተዓታዒቶም ተጫባቢጦም ኣለዉ ማለት እዩ። ፍታሕ ክመጺ እንተኾይኑ ሓዲኦም ክፍንጽግ ኣለዎ። ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ካብ ዓትዒቱ ጨቢጥዎ ዘሎ ኣእዳዉ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ከምልጥ እንተኾይኑ፡ ኣብ ክንዲ ከም ዝብኢ ኣብ ማእከለን ኣትዩ ዝዝረገን ኣጣል ኬንካ ዉልቃዊ ሂወትካ ንምድሓን እግርኻ ዝሃበካ ኣንፈት ብዘየገድስ ምጉያይ፡ ርግእ ኢልካ ምሕሳብን ምምማይን ከድሊ እዩ።

ኣብ ሃገርና ኤርትራ ቡኹረት ግዝኣተ-ሕጊ፡ ምግሃስ ሰብኣዊ መሰላት፡ ስድራቤታዊ ምብትታን፡ ኣዝዩ ጨካን ምልካዊ ስርዓት፡ ምጣኔሃብታዉን ማሕበራዉን ሓርጎጽጎጻት፡ ንድየት፡ ጥምየት…ወ.ዘ.ተ ከምዘሎ ዝኾነ ፍጡር ዝኽሕዶ ጉዳይ ኣይኮነን። ናይ ብሓቂ እቲ ሓቦን ንያትን ሓልዮት ሃገርናን ህዝብናን እንተሃልዩና፡ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ህግደፍ፡ ንምውዳቑ በብዘሎና ዓቕምታትን ተኽእሎታትን ሕጂ!!! ጸጸርና ክንድርብየሉን ኣብያና ከነትሩረሉ ይግብኣና። ኩልና ክንግንዘቦን ክንርዕመሉን ዝግባኣና ጉዳይ እንተሃልዩ ግን፡ ናይ ገጢሞምና ዘለዉ ሽግራትን ብዶሆታትን፡ ፍታሕ ምቕላስ እምበር ምስዳድ ከምዘይኮነ እዩ። ቃልሲ ክባሃል እንኮሎ ድማ ከምዚ ድራር መርዓ ዓርኪ ሕሉፎት ከብድካ መሊእካ ጽምእኻ ኣርዉይካ ሄር ዝበለ ጋይላ ኣጊድካ ክትስዕስዓሉ ትሓድር ኣይኮነን። እንታይድኣ መዓንጣኻ ሓቦን ንያትን ከምዝናር ዲግዲጊት ተዓጢቕካ፡ ንኩሉ ጊዝያዊ ሽግራት ተጸሚምካ ዝሳላሰልን ክሳብ እታ መተካእታ ዘይብላ ሂወትካ ክትብጁዉ ድሉዉ ምኻን እዩ።

ሕቶ ሃገርን ህዝቢ ሕቶ ትማሊን ሎሚን ኣይኮነን፡ እንታይድኣ? ሕቶ መጻኢ እዩ። ሕቶ ሃገርን ህዝቢ ሕቶ እቶም ትማሊ ንኤርትራ ግምጃ ክስሉሙ ዝሓለፉ ኣይኮነን፡ እንታይድኣ? ሕቶ እዞም ሕጂ ዘሎና ወለዶ እዩ። እዚ ሕጂ ዘሎ ወለዶ እንታይ የጣጥሕን እንታይ የሕልፍን ንመጻኢ ወለዶ እዩ። ነፍስ-ወከፍ ኤርትራዊ ዜጋ፡ ከም ሓደ ኣብዲ ሰብ ንዓይ ይጥዓመኒ ዝዓይነቱ ክንሓስብን ከነተግብርን እንተነቂልና ጽባሕ ንግሆ ሮማን ጂብስ ኬና ከምእንተርፍ ክንግንዘቦ ዝግባእ ጉዳይ እዩ።

ወድሓንኩም!

መርዕድ ዘርኡ

17/12/2009

December 4, 2009

ERITREA-SUDAN: A forgotten refugee problem

Filed under: Report — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 4:19 pm

Photo: Maram Mazen/IRIN
A boy at Shagarab refugee camp: Shagarab, with the worst conditions among the three biggest camps in eastern Sudan, houses more than 21,000 mostly Eritrean refugees, in addition to some Ethiopians and Somalis.

KASSALA, 3 December 2009 (IRIN) – Eastern Sudan hosts more than 66,000 registered Eritrean refugees, the first of whom arrived in 1968 during the early years of Eritrea’s war of independence against Ethiopia. These days, Eritrea’s policy of indefinite military conscription, coupled with drought and poor economic opportunities, prompt some 1,800 people to cross into Sudan every month, according to the UN Refugee Agency, UNHCR.

“Refugees have been here for the past 30-40 years, which is two to three generations, and that is quite unique,” said Peter de Clercq, the UNHCR representative in Sudan.

“It is as far as we know the longest-standing refugee situation in Africa that is still protracted. That is mostly because of the political situation inside Eritrea,” he said.

As they planned for their big escape to Europe or Israel, asylum-seekers dreamed of a better life in Sudan. But instead, thousands woke up to the realities of the grim camp conditions, lacking food security or proper healthcare, and sharing scarce resources with Sudanese nationals. On arrival at the reception centre at Shagarab camp in Kassala state, near the Eritrean border, they are not immediately provided with proper shelter. Only when their refugee status is confirmed, which can take four to six weeks, are they able to move into tents or huts, which they often have to build themselves.

“Living here is difficult. Hearing about it from afar, the camp sounded comfortable, but if you come here it seems like [an Eritrean] national service camp, because you can’t have any money,” said a 22-year-old Eritrean refugee.

Shagarab, with the worst conditions among the three biggest camps in eastern Sudan, houses more than 21,000 mostly Eritrean refugees, in addition to some Ethiopians and Somalis. The 1,800 monthly arrivals also include young men who flee forced conscription in the Eritrean army.

“I worked in the army for more than 10 years. I left because my family is very poor. Not enough money to live in Eritrea. It is very hard,” said another refugee, 34. “We four brothers were in the army, so nobody could feed our family,” he added.

The UN World Food Programme supplies the camps with food aid but refugees say it is not enough. Education opportunities for children are also inadequate. Out of 15,000 children in the 12 camps in the east, 6,000 do not get the chance for a primary education because schools lack the capacity to absorb them, UNHCR Africa Director George Okoth-Obbo said later in Khartoum.


Photo: Maram Mazen/IRIN
Children at the Wad Sharifey refugee camp, home to 15,020 mostly Eritrean refugees

Status revoked

In 2002, the refugee status enjoyed by those who had fled the independence war, or subsequent conflict between Ethiopia and Eritrea, was revoked, on the grounds that the circumstances that led to their exodus no longer pertained.

Although thousands of refugees returned to Eritrea, some refused to do so.

A 24-year-old mother of three, born and raised in the Wad Sharifey camp close to the Eritrean border, told IRIN: “I do not want to go back to Eritrea. The reasons for us leaving have not ended.”

Most of the refugees stay inside the camps. However, many risk their lives trying to reach Europe or Israel. “We can indeed confirm reports that many people in fact do not make it – people do die in the desert, there is no doubt about that, and there are many dead bodies that wash up on the shore,” De Clercq said in Khartoum.

Some of the refugees move to other cities in Sudan looking for employment. The government says there are about 40,000 refugees living in urban centres, sharing services and job opportunities with Sudanese nationals. Although UNHCR says the government has not rejected any Eritrean asylum-seekers, it does try to reduce the pull of the refugee camps to potential ones.

Refugees are allowed to work in Sudan, but government policy is to keep them inside the camps, said Abdallah Soliman Mohamed, deputy commissioner of refugees. With no access to better education for refugee children, and after international donors have supported the camps for more than 40 years, UNHCR says it is looking into other ways for the refugees to become self-reliant.

“The first durable solution for refugees is to go back home. We will always investigate that opportunity. But it doesn’t seem as if in the near future there are any major opportunities for return [to Eritrea],” De Clercq said. “Therefore, the next best solution is the local integration of the refugees in eastern Sudan, and that very much depends on the support we get from the government.”


Photo: Maram Mazen/IRIN Maram Mazen/IRIN
A woman sits in her home in the Wad Sharifey refugee camp: Eritrea’s policy of indefinite military conscription, coupled with drought and poor economic opportunities, prompt some 1,800 people to cross into Sudan every month, according to the UNHCR

Refugee projects

De Clercq said the UN agency was studying with the Sudanese government possible projects that would lead to the refugees’ self-reliance. Among the projects being discussed is leasing irrigated land to refugees so they can provide for their own food needs and sell the excess produce.

After formulating a comprehensive programme with the Sudanese government, UNHCR says it will present the suggested activities to international donors in 2010, which would require additional funds. UNHCR spent US$16 million this year on the camps.

With no clear end in sight, UNHCR says the refugee problem could be exacerbated as agencies expect a bigger influx of Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees to cross into Sudan in the next few months because of a drought and food shortages.

“There are very clear indications both in Ethiopia and Eritrea, as well as in eastern Sudan that this will be a very bad season. It’s the coming season in the next few months that is going to be really crucial to see whether this will materialize,” De Clerq said.

If drought does hit those regions, the numbers of Ethiopians and Eritreans coming into Sudan in the next few months could be as high as “tens of thousands of people”, he said.

mm/mw

Themes: (IRIN) Early Warning, (IRIN) Refugees/IDPs
[ENDS]
Report can be found online at:
http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=87300[This report does not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations]
 

December 3, 2009

ፍሽለት! ነቲ ፍሽለት ብዝወግድ ስራሕ’ዩ ዝእረም !

Filed under: Politics — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 10:30 am

ፍሽለት! ነቲ ፍሽለት ብዝወግድ ስራሕ ዝእረም !

ሕብረተሰብ ኤርትራ፡ ኣብ ሕቶ ምርግጋጽ መሬታዊ ናጽነትን ልዕላዉነትን እኳ እንተትዓወተ ዛጊት ንምርግጋጽ ልዕላዉነት ህዝብን ምርግጋጽ ዜጋዊ ሓርነታዊ መሰልን ማዕርነትን ግን ኣብ መስርሕ ኪደት ቅልስ እዩ ዝርከብ። ሕብረተሰብ ኤርትራ፡ ኣዝዩ ፍሉይን እምብዛ ዘዂርዕን ፖለቲካዊ ተሞኩሮን ታሪኽን ዘለዎ እኳ እንተኾነ፡ ከም ነብስወከፍ ሕብረተሰባት ዓለምና፡ ኣብ ዘካዮዶ ቅልሳት ዝፈሸለሉ መዳያት እዉን ዝሳኖ ኣይኮነን። ኣብ ዘመናዊ ታሪኽ ህዝብታት ዓለምና ኣዝዮም ሒደት መዳርግቲ ጥራይ ዘለውዎ ሕብረተሰብ ኤርትራ ኣዝዩ ዝተሓላለኸን ከቢድ ዋጋ ዝኸፈለሉ ሰዉራ ኣኳይዱ ደዉላ እኳ እንተመስረተ፡ ናይ መጻኢ ዕድላቱ መታን ጽልግልግ ዝበለ ከይከዉን፡ ዋሕስ ክገብረሉ ዝግባእ ዋንነትን ኣማቛርሓ ፖሎቲካዊ ስልጣን ስለዘይወሰነን ዘይፈትሔን ኤርትራ ኣብ ኣዝዮም ጊናያት ዝኾኑ ኣእዳዉ ቁንጣሮ ዉልቀሰባት ወዲቃ እያ። እዚ እዩ እቲ ዝፈሸልናሉ መዳይ። ከም ሳዕቤናት እዚ ፍሽለት እዚ፡ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ኣብዚ እዋን ከቢድ ዋጋታት ይኸፍል ከምዘሎ እዉን ዝኾነ ነባቢ ኣሉቀጣን ክብሎ ዝኽእል ሓቂ ኣይኮነን።

ከም ሕብረተሰብን ሃገርን ንዝገጠመና ፍሽለት ምጽብባቕን ምግናንን ዘድልዮ ኣይኰነን። ንፍሽለትና ብሰንኪ ፍላን ፍላን ኢልና ከነፋኹሶን ክነጽጎን እንተጀሚርና ፈጺምና ክንእርሞ ኣይክንበቕዕን ኢና። እዚ ዘዂርዕን ዘሕዝንን ፖለቲካዊ ተሞኩሮና ግን፡ ንታሪኽ ንምንያትን ምስትንታናትን ጥራይ ዝግደፍ ኣይኮነን፡ እቲ ምንታይ እቲ ዝተሰርሐ ታሪኽን ዘጋጠመና ፍሽለትን ብእኡ ዝተበገሰ ዲናሚካውነትን ከም ደራኺ ሓይሊ ኣዉንታታት ዓቂብና ኣሉታታት ኣወጊድና እነሳላስሎ ማሕበራዊ ሰዉራ፡ ንምህናጽ ሰላምን ፍትሕን ራህዋን ዝሰፈኖ ሃገርን ሕብረተሰብን ንክኸዉን ክንቃለስ ኣሎና። እዚ ሕጂ ከነካይዶ ዝግብኣና ማሕበራዊ ሰዉራ፡ ኣገዳስነቱ ካብቲ ኣብ እዋን ሓርነታዊ ቃልሲ ዘሳላሰልናዮ ቃልሲ ዝንእስ ኣይኮነን፡ ብኣንጻሩ ዝተሓላለኸን ኣዝዩ ከቢድ ብድሆታት እዩ። ንሕብረተሰብ ኤርትራ ጉዳይ ምርግጋጽ ሰላም፡ ራህዋ፡ ጽጋብ፡ ርዉየት፡ ስሓ፡ ጥዕና፡ ማዕረ ዕድላት፡ ምርግጋጽ ሰብኣዊን ዲሞክራስያዉን መሰላት፡ ሙሉእ ተሳትፎ ኣብ ምዉሳን ጉዕዞ ሃገሩን ምምሕያሽ ነገራዊ መንፍሳዊ ባህላዉን ድሌታቱን ጠለባቱን ብዝተሓተ ደረጃ ዝራጋገጸሉ ህሞት እንተዘይፈጢርና፡ ኤርትራ ወትሩ ኣብ መስቀላዊ ጎደና ሓደጋታት ዝተሳጥሔት ሃገርን ህዝብን ክትከዉን እያ።

እዚ ኣባሃህላ እዚ ካብ ሕማቕ ድሌታት ወይ ካብ ኣጋጣሚታት ንምውርዛይን ምግናንን ወይ ንፖለቲካዊ በለጽ ወይ ስነኣእሙራዊ ኪናት ኣብ ልዕሊ ህዝበይ ንምክያድ ዝጽሕፎ ዘሎኹ ዘይኮነ። ካብ ተሞክሮ ሕብረተሰባትን ሃገራትን ዓለምና ዝሓለፍኦን ዘጋጠመንን ብምንቃል፡  እቲ ሓደጋታት ተወሊዑ ይራየኒ ስለ ዘሎ እዩ። ወትሩ ጊዝየን ዝቀያየሩ ዉድዓዉን ባዕላዉን ኩዉንነታት  ዘየእርግዎም ናይ ሓባራዊ ፖሎቲካዉን ሕብረተሰብኣዉን ራእይን ሕልምን ሕቶታት ጥራይ እዮም።

ከም ህዝብን ሃገርን  ዝተነጸረን ነቕ ዘይብል ሓባራዊ ፖሎቲካዉን ሕብረተሰብኣዉን ራእይን ሕልምን  እንተዘይብልና፡ ነቲ ብሕልናናን ኣካልናን ንሓስቦ ዘሎና ስትራተጂካዊ ዕላማ ክንበጽሖ ኣይንኽእልን ኢና። ነቕ ዘይብል ሓባራዊ ፖሎቲካዉን ሕብረተሰብኣዉን ራእይን ሕልምናን  ኣብ ወሳኒ ግደ ሰብ  ማእከል ቦታ ዘትሓዘ ስትራተጂ እንተዘይኮይኑ፡ ኩሉ ኤርትራዊ ዜጋ ነገራዉን መንፈሳዉን ድሌታቱ ከማልእ ኣይክእልን እዩ። ካብ ጭቆና፡ ኣድልዎ፡ ግዳይነት፡ ስእነትን ድንቁርናን ሓራ ክኸዉን ኣይክእልን እዩ። እዚ ስትራተጂ እዚ ሰብኣዊ ዓቕምታትና ብዘይ ገለ ገደብን መሰናኽላትን ዘምዕብለሉ፡ ኣብ ልዕልና ሰብ ዝተመስረተ ቬርገሳዊ ሕብረተሰብን ሃገራ ንምህናጽ  ዓቢ ድርኺት ክፈጥረልና እዩ።

 ከምዚ ዓይነት ሕብረተሰብ ንምህናጽ ድማ፡ ብዘይ ዝተነጸረን ነቕ ዘይብል ሓባራዊ ፖሎቲካዉን ሕብረተሰብኣዉን ራእይን ሕልምን  ክዕወት ኣይክኣልን እዩ። ልዕሊ ኹሉ ግን ዝተነጸረን ነቕ ዘይብል ሓባራዊ ፖሎቲካዉን ሕብረተሰብኣዉን ራእይን ሕልምን  ሃሊካ ብዘይ ምዕሩይን ንጥፉን  ሱታፌ ህዝቢ ንክዕወት ክሕሰብ ዘይክኣል እዩ። ምኽንያቱ ተሳተፍነትን ምዕሩይነት እቶም ቀንዲ እምነ መሰረት ናይ ምዕብልናን ዓወትን እዮም። ኣብ ሱታፌ ህዝቢን ህዝቢ ዝተስረተ ዳይነሚክ ቅርጻ እንተዘይሃሊዩ ዝተነጸረን ነቕ ዘይብል ሓባራዊ ፖሎቲካዉን ሕብረተሰብኣዉን ራእይን ሕልምን  ሃሊካ እዉን ስጋ ዘልብሶ ስለዘይብሉ ሕልሚ ደርሆ ኮይኑ እዩ ዝተርፍ።

ከምዚ ንርእዮን ንሰምዖን ዘሎና፡ ዝተፈላለዩ ኣዝዮም ብሉያት ምንህንህ ዝበሉን ሓደስቲ ትርር ዝበሉ ማሕበራዊ ሕማማት፡ ንሃገራዉነትናን ዲምክራስያዉነትና ዝፍሕቕዎን ዘዳኽምዎብን እንተኾይኖም፡ ካብ ስነ ሓሳብ ሃገርን ህዝብን ንርሕቕ ስለዘሎና፡ ሓባራዊ ራእን ሓባራዊ ቃልስን ቦታ ክስእኑ ምኻኖም ዘጣራጥር ኣይኮነን። ንዓብላልነትን ምግባትን ፍሉያት ሃይማኖት፡ ኣዉራጃ፡ ቀቢላ፡ ኤትኒክ ጉጂለ፡ ቀጻላታት ሕብረተሰብ ንምንጋስ ዝሳላሰል ቃልስታት እንተኾይኑ ዘይምቕላስ ይምረጽ ይመስለኒ። ኣብ ድሕሪ መጋረጃ ሰብኣዊ መሰለይ እዩ ተሞኽልዩ፡ ሓደ ንኻልእ ንምዕብላልን ንምብርኻኽን ዝካየድ ቃልሲ ንኩሉ ጹሩይ ማይ ሩባታት ኤርትራን ሕብረተሰብ ኤርትራ ዝዘርግን ንሞርጊ ዝቕይር ስለዝኾነ፡ ብትሪ ክንብድሆ ዘለና ዑቱብ ጉዳይ እዩ። እዚ ኽብል ኮሎኹ ግን ንዝተራእየ ኣድሉዎታትን ጽቕጠታትን ንምእላይ ኣይንቃለስ ማለተይ ኣይኮነን። እቲ ምንታይሲ ማሕበራዊ ሰዉራ መሰረታዊ ለዉጥታት ንምምጻእን  ዘይተደልየ ኣድልዎታትን ጽቕጠታትን ንምዉጋድ ዝካየድ ሓርነታዊ ዲናሚካዊ ምንቅስቓስ ብምኻኑ እዩ።

ጉድ እኮ እዩ! ኣብ ኩሉ ንጥፈታት ዝካየድ ዘሎ ቃልስታት እንተተዓዚብና ኩሉ ሙስሉይን ዘይጥቕዉን እዩ። ፍሽለት ነቲ ፍሽለት ብዝወግድ ስራሕ ዝእረም ዝግብኦ እንበር፡ በቲ ዝሓለፈ ፍሽለት ተጠሚቁ ንኡ ክደግም ዝዋደድ ኣይኮነን። ሕሉፍ ሓሊፉ ቅድሚ ሕጂ ክንዲ ዓመት ዝተቃለስና ኣብ ዝተፈላለየ ጽፍሕታት መሪሒነት ሰሪሕና እንዳበሉ ዝጽዕዱ፡ ነቲ ዝካየድ ዝነበረ ቃልስታት ንትኹላዊ ምትፍናን ደቕዲቆም ከም መናባባሪ መነባብርኦም ክጥቀሙሉ ጸኒሖምን ኣለዉን። ሕጂ ድማ ንሕና ኢና ፈለጣት ብኣና ጥራይ እዩ ጉዳይ ኤርትራ ኣብ መጋባእያታ ዓለምለኸ ክቐርብ ዝኽእል ነይሩ ኢሎም ዝጽዕዱ፡ ሓደስት መናፍቓን ይቃላቀሉ ኣለዉ። ኩፍኡስ ኣብ ክንዲ ዝስተር መሊሱ ይግተር ከምዚብሃል፡ ሃለዋት ጉዕዘታቶም ንምፍላጥ ሃሳስ እንተበልካ (ሎንደንቡሩስልለንደንኣዲስ ኣበባ) ደጊም ቱሩፍ! ፈከትራስ መግዛእቲ ድዩ እዚስ ወይስ ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ሰላምን ምርግጋእን ንምፍጣር? ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ ሰላምን ምርግጋእን ንምፍጣር ኣበይ ኣሎ እቲ ጭቡጥ ባይታታትን ዝቃለስሉ ኣጋርሃዋርያት ለዉጢ ዝኾኑ መሰረታት?

ኩቡራት ደቂ ዓደይ ኤርትራ ነፍስወከፍ ኤርትራዊ ሞራላዊ ግዴታታት ኣለዎ ነዚ ሙሑድግ ክዉንነት ክቕይሮ፡ ነዚ ሓደገኛ ክዉንነት እንተዘይቀይርና ናይብሓቂ ይነግረኩም ኣሎኹ ኹሉና ተሓተትን ፈጸምትን ናይቲ ሃስያታት ኢና። ሓደ ብጹኑዕ ዘስተብሃልኩሉ ጉዳይ ኣሎ፡ ንሱ ድማ ብኩሉ እንትንኡ ዘየድማዕን ፉሹልን ዋዕላ ኣብ ቡሩስል ሃገር ቤልጅም ኣብ ዝተኻየደሉ እዋናት እተን ኣብኡ ዘይተሳተፋን ዝበዝሓን ፖሎቲካዊ ጉጂለታት፡ ሲቪላዊ ማሕበራትን ዉልቀሰባት ኣካል ተቃዉሞ ደንበ ዝኾኑ፡ ኣብ ፍጹም ራዕድ ተሽሚመን ቡሁሉን ዘይቡሁሉን፡ ክዉንን ዘይክዉንን፡ ኩናኔን ወራይ ኩናኔን.. ከስምዓ እየን ጀሚረን። ብኣንጻር እዚ ድማ ናይ ሱታፌ ዕድላት ዝረኸቡ ድማ ኣብ ፍጾም ናይ ምክልኻል ክዉንነት ኣትዮም ንሓደ ብኩሉ እንትንኡ ፍሹል ዋዕላ ብሬድዮ ብጽሑፍ ከቛናጅዉ ትንፋሶም ሓሊፎም እዮም። ነዚ ክትግዕታ ትርህጻ ከምዝብሃል፡ እንታይ ስለዝተረኽበ እዩ ክንድዚ ሃለዉሎዋት? ሕብረት ኤዉሮጶ ድሕሪ እቲ ዋዕላ ቡሩስል ኣብ ኤርትራ ዘለዎ ፖሊሲታት ከምዘይቕይሮ ኣብ ፖሎቲካዊ ጽምዶን ልምዓታዊ ምትሕግጋዛትን ምስቲ ዘሎ ፖሎቲካዊ ስርዓት ክኣቱ ምኻኑ ኣፍሊጡ እዩ። ድሕሪ እዚ መግለጺ እዚ ጉዳይ ኣብቂዑን ፍሽለቱ ተጎልቢቡ እዩ።

ኣብዘየሎን ኣብ ሕልምን ምቕንጃዋትን ዝነብር ደንበ ተቃዉሞን ምልካዊ ስርዓትን፡ ኣብ ክንዲ ኣብ ሕማቕ እዋናት ሓድነቱን ስጡም መርገጺታቱን ዘነጽርን ዝዕቕብን ንትኹላዊ ምትፍናን ተደቕዲቑ ኣብ ሓሸዉየ እዩ ኣትዩ። ኣብ ሓሽዉያ ዝኣተወ ምልካዊ ስርዓትን ኣብ ሓሸዉየ ዝኣተወ ተቓዉሞ መፍትሒ ህሉዉ ጸገማትና ክኾኑ ኣይክእሉን እዮም። ነቲ ዝሓልፈ ፍሽለታት ዝደጉሙ ስለዝኾኑ፡ ካብቲ ዝሓለፍናዮ ፍሽለታት ዘናግፈና ሩጡቡን ቅርዕው ጉዕዞ ናብ ምሉእ ኣግእዞታት ዝጠመተ ማኣዝን ክንሕዝ ኣሎና። ነዚ ናብ ንቡር ቦትኡ ንምምላሱ ሓያል ቃልስታት ከድሊ እኳ ኣንተኾነ፡ ተቦግሶታት ቃልስና ፍሽለት! ነቲ ፍሽለት ብዝወግድ ስራሕ ዝእረም ! ዝብል ጭርሖን እምነትን ዓቲርና ከንነቅሎ ኣሎና።

 

ወድሓንኩም!

መርዕድ ዘርኡ

03/12/2009

 

December 2, 2009

People and Power -The mystery behind Eritrea – 2 Dec 09

Filed under: Report — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 9:46 pm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FrvaEVs2VtE

ግርም ከም ቱሪስት ኬንካ ተኣትዩ፡ ሑቡእ ካሜራታት ጌርካ ተሳኢሉ፡ እንታይ ሓድሽ ነገር ካብ ማሕብረሰብ ዓለም ዝተኸወለ ነገር ተቋሊሑን ኣሎን? እዚ ኹሉ ሰብኣዊ ጉልበት ድኻም፡ ዘይተደነ ፋይናንሳዊ ወጻኢታትን ስለያዊ ስርሓት ዝመስል ኣሳራርሓ እንታይ ኣድለየ? ኩሉ ንህዝባዊ መራኸቢ ሃልክታት እዩ። ልዕሉ ኹሉ ግን እታ ጋዘጤኛ ኣቀዲሙ ዝተነግራ፡ ዘንበቦቶ ሓቤሬታታ ጎዶናታትን ከተማታትን ኤርትራ እንዳርኣየት ትደግም ዘላ ፓፓጋሎ እያ ትመስል። እቲ ንሳ ትገልጾ ዘላ ኩሉ ጊዝየ ብዝተፈላለዩ ኤርትራዉያን መራኸቢ ቡዙሓንን ዓለምለኸን ዝግለጽን ዝፍለጥን እዩ። ብመንጸር እዚ ምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ ንጋዜጠኛታት ከም መሳርሒ ናይ ስለያዊ ስርሓት ኣምሲሉ ስለዝኸሶም፡ ነዚ ክስታት እዚ ኣራጋጊጻቱሉን ኣራጊዳትሉን ኣላ። እዚ ኣጋባብ ኣሳራርሓ እዚ ንምልካዊ ስርዓት ህ.ግ.ደ.ፍ መሊሱ ዘናቕጾን ሉጋሙ ኣኽሪሩ ከምዝዕትዕቶ ዝገብሮ እንበር ቅጭጭ ዝብሎ ኣይመስለኒን። ነቶም ብወግዕ ከም ጋዜጠኛታት ኮይኖም ዝኣቱዉ ንዉሽጥ ኤርትራ ዝነበረ ተኽእሎታት ዘርቕቕን ዘጻብብን ተግባር እዉን እዩ።

December 1, 2009

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Filed under: Politics — eritrearealclearpolitics @ 10:01 pm

On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and “to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories.”

http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

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